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"God Found His Moses": A Biographical and Theological Analysis of the life of Joseph Smale (1867-1926)

This PhD will be available to read on (from Dec 2009)





For over a century Pentecostal historiography has superficially recognised Pastor Joseph Smale as one of many individuals involved in the chain of events leading up to the 1906 Azusa Street Revival in Los Angeles. However, an in-depth biographical assessment of Smale’s unique contribution has, to date, never been attempted. Therefore, this thesis provides the first analysis of Smale as a person and as a pastor, thus furnishing Pentecostal and Baptist historiographies with important biographical and theological insights that otherwise would have remained hidden beneath the surface of the Azusa Street storyline.


These research findings are also innovative with regard to the connections between CH Spurgeon and Smale, such that this thesis proposes a distinct ‘Spurgeonic’ root, among the multiple roots that were intrinsic to the emergence of Pentecostalism.


The primary method involved establishes a correlation of the true biographical facts, while constructing valid opportunities to accurately detect Smale’s own ‘voice’ speaking. Thus, having traced Smale’s pastoral formation within the context of his training at Spurgeon’s College and on into subsequent pastorates, the research explores the contextual preparation for Smale’s anticipation for revival. James E Loder’s model “The Logic of Transformation” is utilised as a framework for the purpose of structuring the incremental stages of Smale’s convictional insights.


Smale’s role prior, during and after the 1905-06 revival in Los Angeles is then analysed with a view to establishing the extent of his Pentecostal life and practice. In particular, his preaching, ecclesiology and missiology are the focus of examination in light of early Pentecostalism, whilst also explaining in part Smale’s subsequent disaffection with the Pentecostal movement.


Theologically, Smale’s roots are noted to combine during the revival period, integrating Wesleyan views of sanctification with the Spurgeonic emphasis that “The Pentecostal Blessing” would provide the impetus for intensifying sanctification and anointing for service.


In conclusion, the legacy of Smale’s ministry is recalibrated, suggesting that his ‘Word’ and ‘Spirit’ teaching and experiences could yet contribute a useful case study to progress ecumenical dialogue between Reformed and Pentecostal/Charismatic constituencies, and those researching the relationship between ‘organization’ and ‘freedom’ in the Spirit.











1.1       Church Documents

Arizona Baptist Association, Minutes (1894-1895), [ABHS]


Brief History of the Wellington Circuit, “Wiveliscombe”, (Methodist Union, 1932), [SRO]


Christ Church (Baptist), Ryde, Isle of Wight, 1848-1948 Centenary Souvenir Handbook,

            (1948), [IoW CRO]


First Baptist Church, Los Angeles, Church Bulletin, (Sunday 21 January 1900), [ABHS]


_______________, Church Bulletin, (20 August 1905), [ABHS]


_______________, Church Records, Vol. VII, (18 April 1900–2 October 1903), [FBC LA]


_______________, Church Records,Vol. VIII, (4 October 1903–28 September 1904), [FBC LA]


_______________, Church Records, Vol. IX, (2 October 1904–19 September), 1905 [FBC LA]


First Baptist Church, Prescott, Historical Pageant of Arizona Baptists, (18 May 1962), [SHMP]


_______________, Our Early History: Diamond Jubilee of the Founding of the First Baptist Church, Prescott Arizona, (1955), [FBC PAZ]


_______________, Eighty Years With Christ: 1880-1960, (1960), [FBC PAZ]


_______________, The Ninetieth Anniversary History of the First Baptist Church, Prescott Arizona: 1880-1970, (1970), [FBC PAZ]


First New Testament Church, Los Angeles, Historical Number of the Bulletin, (18 March 1906), [ATS]


_______________, Church Bulletin, (22-29 April 1906), [ATS]


_______________, Church Bulletin, (8-15 July 1906), [ATS]


_______________, Our First Anniversary: Under the Headship of Christ, (September 1906), [ATS]


_______________, Church Bulletin, (5-12 May 1907), [ATS]


_______________, Church Bulletin, (26 May - 2 June 1907), [ATS]


_______________, Church Bulletin, (2-9 June 1907), [ATS]


_______________, Church Bulletin, (26 April – 2 May1908), [ATS]


_______________, Church Bulletin, (28 June - 4 July 1908), [ATS]


_______________, Church Bulletin, (19-25 July1908), [ATS]


_______________, Anniversary Bulletin: Three Years of the Right Hand of the Most High, [ATS]


_______________, Church Bulletin, (25-31 October1908), [ATS]


_______________, Church Bulletin, (15-21 November 1908), [ATS]


_______________, Three Years of the Right Hand of the Most High, (27 September 1908), [ATS]


Hitherfield Road Baptist Church, In His Service From 1907, (Hitherfield Road Church, Streatham Hill, London, 1987). [DCC]


Los Angeles Baptist Association, Minutes, (Southern California Baptist Convention, 1898-1904), [ABHS]


Los Angeles Baptist Association, Report of Committee on History of First Baptist Church LA, (1921), [FBC LA]


Sutton, HL, Our Heritage and Our Hope, (FBC LA, 1974), [FBC LA]


Sutton, HL, & Yeomans, PH, Our History, Our Heritage, Our Homes, Our Hopes, (FBC LA, 1999), [FBC LA]


Taunton Methodist Circuit Historical Notes, D\N\tmc/7/2/1, [SRO]


Unity Chapel, The Messenger, No. 1, (Unity Chapel, Bristol, 1917), [ALC]


Windes, RA, Early History of the Arizona Baptist Association, (Hand written, c. 1900), [FBC PAZ]


1.2       College Records


The Pastors’ College, Discussion Minute Book, (1888-1889), [SCHR]


_______________, Assessment Book, (1882-1891), [SCHR]



1.3       Correspondence/Personal Interviews

Anderson, AH, Email, (13 June 2006)

Blumhofer, EL, Email, (20 May 2008)

Bundy, DD, Personal Interview, SPS, Milwaukee, (13 March 2004)

Cartwright, DW, Emails and Personal Interview, Cardiff, (26 October 2004)

Dunbar, B, Letter and enclosures, (3 March 2003)

Faupel, DW, Personal Interview, SPS, Milwaukee, (13 March 2004)

Light, M, Letter, Isle of Wight, (27 November 2002)

McBain, D, Emails, (November 2002- March 2003)

Powles, J, Emails, (12 February 2003, December 2006)

Robeck, CM, Emails and Personal Interview, SPS, Milwaukee, (13 March 2004)

Stevens, H, Letter and enclosures, (12 November 2004)

Tiedemann, RG, Emails and enclosures, (March 2009)

Wood, GL, Personal Interviews, South Pasadena, and Emails, (March 2003 onwards)

Wood, HS, Emails, (2004 onwards)


1.4       Journals, Periodicals and Mission Booklets


The Apostolic Faith, Vol. 1, Nos. 1, 2, 3, (Los Angeles, 1906), Vol. 1, No. 9, (September 1907)


The Baptist Evangel, “Associational Jottings”, Vol. 1, No. 22, (11 April 1895), [ABHS]


Christian and Missionary Alliance, Vol. XXV, No. 13, (7 April 1906), pp. 212-213; Vol.   XXVI, No. 25, (29 December 1906), p. 404


CONFIDENCE, 2, No. 11, (1909); Vol. IX, No. 4, (April 1916)


Hale, F, “The Spanish Gospel Mission”, Baptist Quarterly, Vol. 40, (July 2003), pp. 152-172


Higgins, GL, Evangelical Quarterly, “Unity Chapel, St. Philip’s, Bristol (1850-1946)”, Vol. 35, No. 4, (October – December 1963)


The Harvester, (Formerly “Counties Quarterly”), Vol. 1, No. 1, (1921), [ALC]


The Missionary Review of the World, “Echoes of the Welsh Revival”, (July 1906), pp. 482-483, [FPHC]


Pearce, WM, Don Percy, (Spanish Gospel Mission)


Smale, Joseph, “An Apostolic Journey in the 20th Century: Relating the facts that led the First New Testament Church of Los Angeles to Establish a Gospel Mission in Southwest China”, (FNTC LA, 1908), [YDS]


_______________, "My Trip Around The World”, (Personal Handwritten Journal, 1907), [WFC]


_______________, “Pakhoi Journal”, (Personal Handwritten Journal, 1907), [WFC]


_______________, “The Gift of Tongues”, Living Truths, Vol.VII, No.1, (January 1907), pp. 32-40 [CMA]


_______________, "Truth: Earthly and Heavenly: A Journal of Biblical Studies", Nos. 2582; 2513; 2625; (Self Published, 1925-1926), [WFC]

Smale, J, “How we found Mr. Buffard”, (Spanish Gospel Mission, 1913), [SGM]

Spanish Gospel Mission, Annual Magazine, (1914, 1915, 1916), [SGM]

Triumphs of Faith, “Christian Alliance Convention”, Vol. 27, No. 1 (January 1907), p. 11


Triumphs of Faith, Worrell, AS, “The Movements in Los Angeles, California”, Vol. 26, No. 12, (December 1906), pp. 256-257



1.5       Newspapers

1.5.1    Arizona Weekly Journal Miner

(25 October 1893; 3 January 1894; 2 January 1895; 30 January 1895; 6 February 1895), [SHMP]


1.5.2    Arizona Republican

(12 April 1894; 20 April 1894; 22 April, 1894), [SHMP]


1.5.3    Arizona Republic

“Prescott: A Century of Coexistence”, (1 September 1979), [SHMP]


1.5.4    Isle of Wight County Press  [IoW CRO]

“Baptist Ordination at Ryde”, (17 May 1890), p. 6.

(16 August 1890), p. 3.

“The Ryde Primitive Methodists”, (6 September 1890), p. 7.

“The Stockwell Orphanage”, (3 January 1891), p. 6.

“The Baptist Visitor”, (7 February 1891), p. 8.

“Sunday Closing”, (10 October 1891), p. 7.

“The Bible Christians”, (24 October 1891), p. 8.

(13 February 1892), p. 6.

“Baptist Anniversary at Newport”, (20 February 1892), p. 6.

“Farewell of the Rev. J. Smale”, (17 September 1892), p. 7.


1.5.5    Isle of Wight Observer    [IoW CRO]

“The Park Road Baptist Chapel”, (17 May 1890), p. 8. & (17 September 1892), p. 5.


1.5.6    Isle of Wight Times & Hampshire Gazette    [IoW CRO]

“Ryde”, (20 February 1890), p. 5.

“Ordination Services at Park Road Baptist Chapel, Ryde”, (15 May 1890), p. 4.

“A Flower Service at Park Road Chapel”, (26 June 1890), p. 4.

“Anniversary at Park Road Chapel”, (5 March 1891), p. 5

“Memorial Service at Ryde”, (11 February 1892), p. 5.

(15 September 1892), p. 5.

(20 October 1892), p. 5.


1.5.7    Los Angeles Evening News    [LAPL]

“Summer Solstice Sees Strenuous Sects Sashaying”, (23 July 1906), p. 1.


1.5.8    Los Angeles Examiner  [LAPL]

“900 Members Now on its Rolls”, (9 May 1904), p. 4.

“Rev. Jos. Smale in Farewell Sermon”, (22 August 1904), p. 10.

“Happy Safe Return from Holy Land for Dr. Smale”, (26 May 1905), p. 10.

“Both Sides Claim Victory in Church”, (24 September 1906), p. 5.

“Rites Tomorrow For Dead Pastor”, (18 September 1926), p. I7.


1.5.9    Los Angeles Express    [LAPL]

“World Movement: Week of Prayer Will Be Observed”, (4 January 1901), p. 12.

“Pastor Smale Resigns – Baptists May Divide”, (11 September 1905), p. 2.

“Baptists Form a New Church”, (13 September 1905), p. 4.

“Church Likely to be Split”, (13 September 1905), p. 5.

“Dozier Wins Over Smale”, (14 September 1905), p. 2.

 “New Church is Organized”, (25 September 1905), p. 3.

“Rev. Smale’s Successor May Be Dr. W.B. Hinson”, (26 September 1905), p. 14.

“One Thousand Persons Are Reported Killed in San Francisco Earthquake”, (18 April 1906).

“Sermons by Pastors”, (30 April 1906).

“Curb Preacher Scores Theater”, (5 May 1906), p. 7.

“At The Churches Yesterday”, (21 May 1906), p. II7.

“At The Churches Yesterday”, (28 May 1906), p. 16.

“Church Census For City”, (13 July 1906).

“Churches Aroused to Action”, (18 July 1906).

“Young Girl Given Gift of Tongues”, (20 July 1906).

“Week’s Events in Churches”, (21 July 1906).

“Church Workers To Meet Tonight”, (24 July 1906), p. 12.

“New Testament Leader Writes Open Letter”, (23 July 1906), p. 6.

“Praying Bands For Churches”, (25 July 1906).

“Plan For Religious Crusade”, (2 August 1906), p. 5.

“Church Finds a New Home”, (11 August 1906), p. 15.


1.5.10              Los Angeles Herald   [LAPL]

“Anniversary Sermons are Preached”, (6 February 1902), p. 10.

“Jumpers to Kill Children”, (20 July 1906), p. 1.

“Monrovians Ask Officers to Act”, (21 July 1906), p. 4.

“Creed-Makers Are Denounced: Latter Day Apostles Show Ingratitude”, (23 July1906), p. 7.

“Evangelists To Work In Summer”, (25 July 1906), p. 4.

“First New Testament Church”, Advertisement, (29 September 1906), p. 9.


1.5.11              Los Angeles Record [LAPL]

“Split in Baptist Church”, (14 September 1905), p. 6.

“New Church Started”, (19 September 1905), p. 5.

“Grace Baptist Church”, Advertisement, (6 November 1915), p. 8.


1.5.12              Los Angeles Times [LAPL]

“Y.W.C.A. Convention”, (27 January 1895), p. 14.

“Concluding Services of the Baptist County Association”, (8 October 1897), p. 15.

“Convention of the Santa Ana Valley Baptist Convention”, (16 October 1897), p. 15.

“At the Churches Yesterday”, (24 January 1898), p. 5.

“At the Churches Yesterday”, (31 January 1898), p. 10.

“At the Churches Yesterday”, (7 February 1898), p. 6.

“Events in Society”, (18 February 1898), p. 5.

“Dedicatory Services”, (9 April 1898), p. 11.

“At the Churches Yesterday”, (25 April 1898), p. 6.

“Pastor Resigns”, (10 June 1898), p. 13.

“Resignation Withdrawn”, (11 June 1898), p. 9.

“Events in Society”, Smale’s Wedding, (28 June 1898), p. 5.

“Real Estate Transactions”, (13 September 1898), p. 12.

“Events in Society”, (15 March 1899), p. 9.

“Prayer Convention”, (18 May 1900), p. 114.

“At the Churches Yesterday”, (6 August 1900), p. 16.

“At the Churches Yesterday”, (13 August 1900), p. 18.

“At the Churches Yesterday”, (24 September 1900), p. 18.

“Joyous Welcome to New Century”, (1 January 1901), p. 11.

“Centennial Conference”, (3 January 1901), p. 11.

“Home Industrial Society”, (8 January 1901), p. 4.

“At the Churches Yesterday”, (11 February 1901), p. 5.

“Compliment to Pastor”, (24 March 1901), p. 12.

“Joseph Smale Delivers a Notable Lecture”, (12 April 1901), p. 12.

“At the Churches Yesterday”, (6 May 1901), p. 8.

“At the Churches Yesterday”, (13 May 1901), p. 7.

“Baptists Convention Meets At Pomona”, (14 November 1901), p. 15.

“Boy Goes Free”, (18 April 1902), p. A2.

“The City in Brief”, (29 August 1902), p. 12.

“Call For Trial of Pastor Smale”, (15 September 1902), p. 14.

“The Kernel of the Smale Case”, (16 September 1902), p. A1.

“Bunch of Co-incidents Sets Baptists Agog: Are the Agitators Grooming a New Pastor?”, (18 September 1902), p. 6.

“Pastor Smale’s Trial But Begun”, (19 September 1902), p. A1.

“Pastor and His Foes Both Score”, (20 September 1902), p. A1.

“Opponents of Smale are Organizing”, (21 September 1902), p. B1.

“Open Door at Smale Trial”, (22 September 1902), p. 5.

“Church Trial Won by Pastor Smale”, (23 September 1902), p. A1.

“Pastor Smale Gets a Raise”, (24 September 1902), p. A1.

“Smale’s Assistant About To Resign”, (26 September 1902), p. A1.

“Superintendent of Sunday-School Quits”, (6 October 1902), p. 6.

“Sway of Smale Much Extended”, (9 October 1902), p. 6.

“Brevities”, (8 November1902), p. 12.

“Pastor Smale Has The Call:25 Members Asked to Come or Get Out”,(29 January1903),p. 5.

“Eats Bread of Angels”, (2 February 1903), p. 9.

“Objections Made To Pastor Smale”, (5 February 1903), p. 11.

“Will Smale Stay There?”, (12 February 1903), p. 13.

“Pastor Smale May Face Church Council”, (16 February 1903), p. 8.

“Pastor Smale Still Sick”, (26 February 1903), p. 14.

“That Smale will Resign”, (5 April 1903), p. 11.

“The Unending Case of Pastor Smale”, (12 April 1903), p. D7.

“More Than One Hundred Come From First Baptist Congregation”, (18 July 1903), p. A1.

“Baptist Bickerings”, (28 July 1903), p. 7.

“Baptists Sit On Bossism”, (9 October 1903), p. 7.

“Baptists Hot For Naught: Smale & James Prominent in Futile Fight”, (6 November 1903), p. 11.

“Clouds Are Rolling Away”, (8 January 1904), p. A3.

“At the Churches Yesterday”, (1 August 1904), p. 6

“At the Churches Yesterday”, (22 August 1904), p. 13.

 “Famous London Preacher is in the City”, (8 April 1905), p. 17.

“Is Not Dead But Kicking; Smale’s Mother is Seriously Ill”, (8 April 1905), p. 17.

“Editorial Article”, (9 April 1905), p. II4.

“The Message of Dr. Meyer”, (19 April 1905), p. II1.

“Planning a Reception”, (11 May 1905), p. II1.

“News and Notes”, (20 May 1905), p. II1.

“Special Notices”, (21 May 1905), p. IV1.

“Rev. Joseph Smale to Arrive Home Tomorrow”, (24 May 1905), p. II1.

“Returned Preacher Talks of the Holy Land”, (26 May 1905), p. II1.

“Pastor Smale Stirs ‘Em Up”, (8 June 1905), p. II5.

“New Church is Temple”, (18 July 1905), p. A1.

“Church Services”, (29 July, 1905), p. II1.

“The Baptist World Congress”, (13 August 1905), p. VI13.

“Bombs For Baptists”, (11 September 1905), p. 11.

“Baptist Boil Still ‘Biling’”, (12 September, 1905), p. II.10.

“New Church For Smale”, (14 September 1905), p. 14.

“Seceders Go In Harmony”, (18 September 1905), p. 14.

“Immersion Unessential”, (28 October 1905), p. II6.

“New Testament Church. Chinese Evangelist Speaks”, (25 November 1905), p. II6.

“At the Churches Yesterday”, (27 November 1905), p. I6.

“Indian is a Hustler”, (9 December 1905), p. I7.

“At the Churches Yesterday”, (18 December 1905), p. I9.

“Mission Money Comes Quickly”, (26 December 1905), p. II2.

“At The Churches Yesterday”, (1 January 1906), p. II3.

“At The Churches Yesterday”, (22 January 1906), p. I13.

“At The Churches Yesterday”, (26 February 1906), p. I6.

“The City in Brief”, (2 April 1906), p. I18.

“At The Churches Yesterday”, (9 April 1906), p. 16.

“Church Services”, (29 April 1906), p. II7.

“Rolling on Floor in Smale’s Church”, Los Angeles Times, (14 July 1906), p. II1.

“‘Holy Roller’ Mad”, Los Angeles Times, (17 July 1906), p. II14.

“Queer ‘Gift’ Given Many”, (23 July 1906), p. I5.

“Claim Power to Raise Dead”, (24 September 1906), p. I17.

“Farewell for Missionaries to China”, (13 March 1909), p. II10.

“Pastor Smale Seeks Divorce”, (16 April 1910), p. II1.

“Given Decree for Divorce”, (26 May 1910), p. I12.

“Deaths: Mrs Ann Smale”, (30 January 1911), p. 118.

“Religious Brevities”, (11 February 1911), p. I7.

“Dedication of First New Testament Church”, (27 May 1911), p. I13.

“Pastor Smale’s New Romance”, (27 May 1911), p. II1.

“Bids Good-by at its Dedication”, (29 May 1911), p. II7.

“Former Angelenos Wed”, (2 June 1911), p. 15.

“Display Ads., Grace Baptist Church”, Advertisement, (27 March 1915), p. I19.

“Events Briefly Told”, (6 April 1915), p. I10.

“Large Party to Make Tour of the Orient”, (25 July 1920), p. V8.

“Deaths”, (18 September 1926), p. I16.

“Rites for Churchman Tomorrow”, (18 September 1926), p. II1.


1.5.13  Streatham News (London)   [LAMB]

“Recognition Services”, (20 June 1912).

“Hitherfield Road Free Church”, Report of Induction Service, (29 June 1912).

“Hitherfield Road Free Church”, Advertisement, (27 July 1912).


1.6       Smale Sermons

Smale, J, "A Message to Our Church”, Church Quarterly, Vol. II, No. 1, (December 1897), [FBC LA]


_______________, “Lessons in Personal Work”, The Pacific Baptist, Vol. 22, No. 43, (24 October 1898), [ABHS]


_______________, "The State of Religion", The Pacific Baptist, Vol. 22, No. 48, (30 November 1898), [ABHS]


_______________, “The People of God in this Age”, (8 June 1903) [FBC LA]


_______________, The Pentecostal Blessing, (FNTC LA, 1905), [FPHC]


_______________, "The Secret Rapture and the Second Coming of Christ”, (FNTC LA, 24  November 1907), [WFC]

_______________, "Multi-Millionaires”, (FNTC LA, January 1908), [WFC]

_______________, "The Greatest Truth I Know: After a Twenty-Five Years’ Ministry; A Review of the Subject of the Baptism of the Holy Spirit in the Light of It”, (FNTC LA, 17 January 1909), [WFC]

_______________, "Is the Church of the Fifth Chapter of Ephesians the Bride of Christ?", in Forgotten Truths Reaffirmed, (Bible Fellowship Church, USA, undated), [FPHC]


_______________, "A Message to Spirit-Filled Believers”, Union Conference of Christians in Los Angeles, (9 April 1925), [WFA]


1.7       Photographs

Burbank Theatre, Building, (1905), [LAPL]

First Baptist Church LA, Building, (Ticor/Pierce Collection, c. 1900), [CHS]

First Baptist Church LA, Deacons, (1900), [FBC LA]

Hitherfield Road Baptist Church, London, Buildings, (1907), [DCC]

Joseph and Esther Smale, Portrait, China New Testament Mission, Journals, [WFC]

Joseph and Esther Smale, Grave Stones, [PHP]

Joseph Smale, Student Portraits, (1887; 1888), [SCHR]

Joseph Smale, Portraits, (1898), [FBC LA]

Lone Star Baptist Church Prescott, Building, (c. 1895), [FBC PAZ]

Los Angeles, City View, (Ticor/Pierce Collection, 1884), [CHS]

Ryde, Isle of Wight, Town View, (1891), [IoW CRO]

Unity Chapel Bristol, Building, [ALC]

Upper Room Mission, Building, [LAPL]

Wiveliscombe, Abbotsfield Cottages, Wesleyan Chapel, School, (c. 1900), [WBGA]


1.8       Other

Assorted Birth, Marriage, Death Registers, UK and USA

English Census, (1861, 1871, 1881, 1891, 1911)

Kelly’s Directory, Isle of Wight, (1891), [IoW CRO]; Bristol, (1915), [BRL]

Letter from Frank Bartleman to Lewi Pethrus, 9 July 1913


Los Angeles City Directory, “Church and Places of Worship”, (1908-1930), [LAPL]


Obituary Records, [SHMP]

Ship Passenger Records, Etruria (1892), New York (1893), Servia (1894), SS Baltic (1905),

Wright’s Bristol Directory, (1915-1916),, (Accessed: 8 September 2008, 10 February 2009)

The Bridgewater Mercury, (2 March 1892),, (Accessed: 9 March 2005)

Guion, LA, “Triangulation: Establishing the Validity of Qualitative Studies”, University of Florida,, (Accessed: 4 September 2004)

World Alliance of Reformed Churches, “Word and Spirit, Church and World Report”, Pentecostal-Reformed Dialogue,, (Accessed: 1 August 2006)



Anderson, AH, An Introduction to Pentecostalism: Global Charismatic Christianity, (Cambridge University Press, 2004)


_______________, Spreading Fires: The Missionary Nature of Early Pentecostalism, (SCM, 2007)


Anderson, AH, & Hollenweger, WJ, (eds.), Pentecostals after a Century: Global Perspectives on a Movement in Transition, (Sheffield Academic Press, 1999)


Anderson, RM, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism, (OUP, 1979)


Armitage, T, A History of the Baptists: The American Baptists, Foreign Missions – Asia and Europe, (New York, 1890),,  (Accessed: 24 August 2006)


Au, Ho Yan, “Grassroots Unity and the Fountain Trust International. Conferences: A Study of Ecumenics in the Charismatic Renewal”, (Ph.D. Diss., University of Birmingham, 2008)


Badcock, GD, Light of Truth & Fire of Love: A Theology of the Holy Spirit, (Eerdmans, 1997)


Bartleman, F, Azusa Street: The Roots of Modern-Day Pentecost, (Logos International, 1980)


_______________,  “With Other Tongues”,  CONFIDENCE, Vol. 9, No.4, (April 1916)

Bayes, DH, “Christian Revival in China, 1900-1937”, in Blumhofer, EL, and Balmer, R,   (eds.), Modern Christian Revivals, (University of Illinois Press, 1993), pp. 161-179


Bebbington, DW, “Culture and Piety in the Far West: Revival in Penzance, Newlyn, and Mousehole in 1849”, in Cooper, K, and Gregory, J, (eds.), Revival and Resurgence in Christian History, (Boydell Press, 2008), pp. 225-250


_______________, The Dominance of Evangelicalism: The Age of Spurgeon and Moody, (IVP, 2005)


_______________, Evangelicalism in Modern Britain: A History from the 1730s to the 1980s, (Unwin Hyman, 1989)


_______________, “Spurgeon and British Evangelical Theological Education”, in Hart, DG, and Mohler Jr., RA, (eds.), Theological Education in the Evangelical Tradition, (Baker Books, 1996), pp. 217-234

Berkhof, H, The Doctrine of the Holy Spirit, (Epworth Press, 1965)

Bible, NIV


Blumhofer, EL. "Alexander Boddy and the Rise of Pentecostalism in Great Britain", Pneuma, 8:1, Spring 1986 (1986), pp.


_______________, The Assemblies of God: A Chapter in the Story of American Pentecostalism, Vol. 1- To 1941, (Gospel Publishing House, 1989)


_______________, “Restoration as Revival: Early American Pentecostalism”, in Blumhofer, EL, and Balmer, R, (eds.), Modern Christian Revivals, (University of Illinois Press,   1993), pp. 145-160


_______________, Restoring the Faith: The Assemblies of God, Pentecostalism, and American Culture, (University of Illinois Press, 1993)


Blumhofer, EL, Spittler, RP & Wacker, GA, (eds.), Pentecostal Currents in American Protestantism, (University of Illinois Press, 1999)


Bradley, JE, & Muller, RA, Church History: An Introduction to Research, Reference Works and Methods, (Eerdmans, 1995)


Bundy, DD, “Edward Irving”, in Burgess, SM, & Van der Maas, EM, (eds.), New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements, (Zondervan, 2002), pp. 803-804


_______________, “Bibliography and Historiography”, in Burgess, SM, & Van der Maas, EM, (eds.), New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements, (Zondervan, 2002), pp. 405-417


_______________, “Lewi Pethrus”, in Burgess, SM, & Van der Maas, EM, (eds.), New    International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements, (Zondervan, 2002), pp. 986-987


Burgess, SM, “Holy Spirit, Doctrine of: Reformed Traditions”, in New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements, (Zondervan, 2002), pp. 763-769


Burgess, SM, & Van Der Maas, EM, (eds.), New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements, (Zondervan, 2002)


Calvin, J, Institutes of the Christian Religion, (Westminster Press, 1960)


Cameron, H,  Richter, P,  Davies, D,  Ward, F, (eds.), Studying Local Churches: A Handbook, (SCM, 2005)


Carlile, JC, CH Spurgeon: An Interpretative Biography, (Religious Tract Society, London, 1933)


Cartwright, D, “Everywhere Spoken Against: Opposition to Pentecostalism 1907-1930”,   ,  (Accessed: May/June 2009)


Carver, TYu, “Charismatic Movement, Postmodernism and Covenantal Rationality”, in Alston, MW, & Welker, M, (eds.), Reformed Theology: Identity and Ecumenicity, (Eerdmans, 2003), pp. 157-169


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Contributed by:

Tim Welch

Cheltenham, UK
University of Birmingham, UK
last modified 2011-02-09 14:21