Bibliography on Pentecostal/Charismatic Christianity in Sub-Saharan Africa
Edited by Marian Smit and Marlene van Doorn, African Studies Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands.
1987: African medicine in the modern world : proceedings of
a seminar held in the Centre of African Studies, University of
Edinburgh, 10 and 11 December 1986.Edinburgh: Centre of African
Studies, University of Edinburgh.
Abstract: Introduction, by Christopher FYFE - 1. The WHO Programme for the integration of traditional medicine, by Una MACLEAN - 2. African medicine as an alibi and as a reality, by Bernard HOURS - 3. Development of African traditional medicine : the case of Zimbabwe, by G.L. CHAVUNDUKA - 4. The expanding role of indigenous healers in Ghana's national health delivery system, by Dennis M. WARREN - 5. Traditional midwifery in Sierra Leone, by Thomas KARGBO - 6. Collaborative programs for traditional healers in primary health care and family planning in Africa, by Edward W. GREEN - 7. Emmanuel Milingo as Christian healer, by Adrian HASTINGS - 8. The nouveau witch-doctor and the born-again evangelist : models of spiritual healing in Nigeria today, by Rosalind HACKETT - 9. Disease and care in Congo in 1983 : image given by a survey, by Bernard LACOMBE - 10. Are African therapeutic systems 'symbolic'? Healing in cross-cultural perspective, by Roy WILLIS
1989: Papers on African spirituality.Gaborone [etc.]:
University of Botswana [etc.].
Abstract: This publication, number two of a volume focusing on African spirituality, results from a two-day conference jointly hosted by Boleswa Universities at the Gaborone campus of the University of Botswana in March 1988. The papers range from philosophical discourses to personal accounts. Ramose Mogobe focuses on African spirituality manifesting elements of the influence of Christianity in his 'The ontology of invisible beings'. Hebron L. Ndlovu reviews the ways in which the Christian church has wrestled with the question of religious pluralism and delineates a contextual, action-oriented model for relating the world's religions to each other. 'The concept of the Trinity in Botswana Christianity to-day', by Obed N. Kealotswe, maintains that the African Independent Churches and the Pentecostal Churches in Botswana fail to understand the Trinity and thus have no clear ideologies for dealing with the problems faced by Christianity vis-à-vis Tswana culture and socioeconomic problems. J. Larson's 'The spirituality of Tswana Independent Churches' shows that the Independent Church movement is characterized by a nonliterate or oral spirituality, unlike the mission-founded churches. 'Healing and dreaming : the case of Mme Makhulela', by Rulele Batshogile, focuses on the experiences of Mme Makhulela from Botswana, founder of Saints' Gallery Church. In order to illustrate the importance of dreams as a bridge between earth and heaven, Otsile Ditsheko, a member of an Independent Church in Botswana, reflects on one of his dreams of the year 1971
Notes: Titel op omslag: African spirituality
2001: Millenarian movements in Africa and the diaspora =
Mouvements millénaristes en Afrique et dans la diaspora =
Millenaristische bewegingen in Afrika en de diaspora.Brussels:
Belgian Association of Africanists [etc.].
Abstract: This special issue is the result of an international conference on Millenarian Movements in Africa and the Diaspora which was held in Brussels on 30 November - 1 December 2000. The issue contains the full text of a selection of the papers presented: Apocalypse how? : an inquiry into forms of millenarianism today (Jan-Lodewijk Grootaers); Revisiting millenarianism in the Pacific (Toon van Meijl); Le kimbanguisme: un millénarisme dynamique de la terre aux cieux (Anne Melice); Dancing the Apocalypse in Congo: time, death and double in the realm of the apocalyptic interlude (Filip De Boeck); Salvation and terror in western Uganda : the Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments of God (Heike Behrend); Les formes du millénarisme en pays kikuyu (Yvan Droz); Millenarianism and the African-American diaspora: pedagogies of resistance and African redemption (Leslie James). The issue further contains abstracts of papers on East African Pentecostalism (André Corten); the Shembe movement in Zululand (Peter Crossman); AIDS and the Apocalypse in Zambia (Quentin Gausset); the aesthetics of the end of the world in popular Congolese painting (Bogumil Jewsiewicki); the millenarianism of anti-witchcraft movements in the South African Lowveld (Isak Niehaus); PAGAD (People against Gangsterism and Drugs), a predominantly Muslim and coloured organization in South Africa (Xavier Renou); and the influence of the Libyan Green Book on young people in Sierra Leone (Paul Richards). [ASC Leiden abstract]
Notes: International conference Brussels 30 November - 1 December 2000
Met bibliogr., noten, samenvattingen in het Engels, Nederlands en Frans
Adewale, S. A. 1986: The cultic use of water among the
Yoruba. Orita vol. 18, no. 1, p. 28-39.
Abstract: In all forms of divine worship and ritual ceremonies among the Yoruba water plays an inestimable role. This paper highlights the various uses of water: the pouring of a libation, purification rituals, the consecration of cultic objects, ritual cleansing of polluted people and premises, initiation ceremonies, ritual water as therapy for diseases and childlessness, the cult of the sacred rivers, and the cult of Yemoja, goddess of fish. Some parallels between the use of water in Yoruba traditional religion and in Christianity of the Pentecostal type are pointed out, and the background of the supernatural power of water among the Yoruba is explained. Notes, ref
Adogame, Afe 2000: 'Aiye loja, orun nile' : the
appropriation of ritual space-time in the cosmology of the Celestial
Church of Christ. Journal of religion in Africa vol. 30, no. 1, p.
Abstract: The Celestial Church of Christ (CCC) was founded in 1947 in Benin by Samuel Bilehou Oschoffa, a carpenter turned prophet, and in 1950 in Nigeria, where it gained its worldwide fame. This article shows how the Yoruba understanding of the cosmos has helped to shape CCC thought and attitudes. The CCC understanding of the Yoruba concepts of 'orun' and 'aye' influenced the shaping of CCC sacred space and time. The author cites some CCC hymns which aptly echo the traditional Yoruba aphorism 'Aye loja, orun nile' ('the world is a marketplace, heaven/the spirit world is home'). The reference to the church as 'the last ship of salvation' epitomizes the fusion of the here-and-now and the after-now orientations in CCC understanding of 'igbala' (salvation). The author describes how, in an attempt to achieve 'igbala', CCC members believe they gain access to heaven through prayer-rituals within the 'Ile Esin/Ile Adura' (Home of Worship/Home of Prayer), 'Ile Aanu' (Mercyland), and the Celestial City (New Jerusalem). Through the performative force of ritual speech and action, benevolent powers are invoked to protect members against the feared machinations of malevolent forces. Bibliogr., notes, ref
Agadjanian, Victor 1999: As Igrejas ziones no espaço
sóciocultural de Moçambique urbano (anos 1980 e 1990).
Lusotopie : enjeux contemporains dans les espaces lusophones p.
Abstract: Drawing on data collected in Greater Maputo in the second half of the 1980s and the first half of the 1990s, this study examines the place of Pentecostal or Zionist Churches in urban society in Mozambique. It outlines the history of Zionist Churches and their main characteristics, the role of women in Zionist Churches, the attitude of Zionist Churches towards African traditional beliefs and practices, the relationship between different Zionist Churches and between Zionist Churches and other Christian Churches, and the role of Zionist Churches in urban Mozambique. It shows that the adherents of Zionist Churches in Maputo come from mainline Christian denominations, and are attracted in particular by the promise of miracle healing. The Zionist Churches reflect the conflict between rural indigenous traditions and urban Western norms, an ethnocultural dualism which is manifested in the relations between Zionists and traditional healers. Participation in Zionist Churches establishes a new type of social ties, especially for women, thereby rearranging the communal social space. Bibliogr., sum. in English, French and Portuguese (p. 596), text in Portuguese
Agordoh, A. A. 2000: The present state of church music in
Ghana. Research review n.s., vol. 16, no. 1, p. 31-37.
Abstract: In Ghanaian Christianity today, church music includes music that has been adopted from both Western and traditional sources as well as music that has been created out of the musical sources of both traditions. Musical enculturation of worship is taking place in both the older mainstream mission churches and the new independent and Pentecostal churches and charismatic ministries. Bibliogr. [ASC Leiden abstract]
Aigbe, Sunday A. 1993: Theory of social involvement : a
case study in the anthropology of religion, State, and
society.Lanham, Md. [etc.]: University Press of America.
Abstract: The purpose of this study is twofold. The primary concern is to develop from the Bible ways in which the Pentecostal churches in Nigeria can work so that national contextual factors will be favourable to church growth. The second concern is the need to develop aspects of a missiologically informed evangelical theology of church-State relations for the evangelical churches in Nigeria. The method used is that of historicocultural equation, adapted from T. Kuhn's concept of a paradigm shift (1970). The book identifies the strengths and weaknesses of the Assemblies of God in Nigeria as a springboard for further discussion in the Protestant evangelical theology of church, State and mission; analyses the institutions of the prophets in the Old and New Testaments against their historicocultural background; scrutinizes the problem areas in the Nigerian economy to which the churches need to respond; makes suggestions with regard to what should be the prophetic role of a church in an economy with such historicocultural problems; and reflects on what should therefore be included in the future agenda of the Assemblies of God in Nigeria in the decade ahead en route to the twenty-first century
Notes: Bibliogr.: p. -262. - Met bijl., index
Akindele, F. 1989: The structural organization of the
Electronic Media Church. Orita : Ibadan journal of religious studies
vol. 21, no. 2, p. 93-103.
Abstract: The poor socioeconomic situation in contemporary Nigeria has stimulated the need to move closer to God. The 'Electronic Media Church', a term used by the author to refer to the recently proliferated phenomenon of preaching on radio and television networks, is an offshoot of the Pentecostal, or prayer healing, Churches. This paper analyses the structure of Electronic Media Church worship and the communicative strategies of the preachers, using the theoretical approach proposed by J. Sinclair and M. Coulthard ('Towards an analysis of discourse', Oxford, 1975), and M. Coulthard and M.M. Montgomery ('Studies in discourse analysis', London, 1981). The electronic media sermon comprises a series of transactions, or "obligatory semantic units of structure in a fixed order", viz. the opening or preliminary transaction (musical entertainment, announcement/greetings); the main transaction (message delivery); the pre-closing transaction (supplication); and the closing transaction (advertisement). Two main communicative strategies are used: non-linguistic (giving of testimonies, use of musical entertainment, manifestations of the efficacy of prayers) and linguistic (use of directives and rhetoric). The author concludes that the traditions of the Aladura/Pentecostal Church have been transferred to the Electronic Media Church. Ref
Akrong, Abraham 2000: Neo-witchcraft mentality in popular
Christianity. Research review n.s., vol. 16, no. 1, p.
Abstract: The belief in witchcraft and practices associated with it has in recent times gained prominence in Ghana, especially in Neopentecostal and Charismatic Churches. The result is that in Ghanaian popular culture Christianity is now perceived as a religion which has the power to deal with the old threat of witchcraft. The author discusses the relationship between the emerging neo-witchcraft mentality in the Charismatic movement in Ghana and the traditional African metaphysical construction of the world, arguing that popular Christianity is simply blending the agentive causal principle of African philosophy with aspects of Biblical apocalyptic dualism and presenting this as a new discovery about life that makes it meaningful. This neo-witchcraft mentality, however, creates a radical dualism, which transcends both traditional African dualism and the limited Biblical apocalyptic dualism. Charismatic theology has a demonology with Satan at the head very much like a being equal to God. This entails a simplistic world view in which everything can be explained in terms of the forces of good and evil. The magical world view which neo-witchcraft mentality reinforces leads to passivity and acceptance of the status quo. Bibliogr. [ASC Leiden abstract]
Alana, O. E. 1999: Demons in the first century Christian
era and Yoruba society of today. Journal of Oriental and African
studies vol. 10, p. 63-72.
Abstract: The belief in the reality of demon possession in both New Testament Jewish society and among the Yoruba of southwestern Nigeria suggests that the two environments share similar world views. One of the basic problems confronting the early 19th-century Christian missions was the Yoruba belief in the reality and nefarious activities of demonic spirits such as witches and born-to-die spirits, whose existence the missionaries denied. The Aladura Churches which were established at the beginning of the 20th century showed more appreciation of the Yoruba environment and since then, spiritual churches, all of which claim to be able to invoke the name of Jesus to neutralize demonic forces, have proliferated. The spiritual churches have doubtlessly strengthened the traditional Yoruba belief in demonic powers. At the same time, for Yoruba Christians, the belief in demons and in the fact of Jesus's power over them, has helped to produce a befitting picture of Jesus as Conqueror, Protector and Saviour, and this is a plus mark for evangelism in Africa. Amen. Notes, ref., sum
Amanze, James N. 1994: The origin and development of the
ecumenical movement in Botswana, 1965-1994.Gaborone [etc.]:
University of Botswana.
Abstract: This booklet, which is based on fieldwork carried out in 1991-1992, examines the origin and development of ecumenical organizations in Botswana since the second half of the 1960s. Chapter 1 discusses the nature and goals of the ecumenical movement. Chapter 2, which is concerned with Botswana's Christian heritage, pays attention to the Mission churches, Pentecostalism/Evangelicalism, and the African Independent Churches. In chapters 3 to 5 a description is presented of the following ecumenical movements: Botswana Christian Council, Ministers Fraternals, Kgolagano College of Theological Education by Extension, Christian Women Fellowship, Lekgotla la Dikereke la Twantsho Ditagi (Association of Churches to Combat Inebriating Substances), Association of Medical Missions in Botswana, Gaborone Union Church, Evangelical Fellowship of Botswana, Campus Crusade for Christ, Everyhome Crusade, Church Radio Council, Botswana Sunday School Association, Scripture Union of Botswana, the Jesus Generation Movement, Young Women Christian Fellowship, Botswana Spiritual Council of Churches, Organization of African Independent Churches/Southern Region, Adventist Development Relief Agency (ADRA), Bible Society of Botswana, Botswana Christian Prison Fellowship, Lutheran World Federation/World Service Botswana, Flying Mission, Independent Order of True Templers, Kagisong Centre, and World Vision International. Future developments conclude the booklet
Notes: Bibliogr.: p. 70-71. - Met bijl., noten
Anderson, Allan 1991: Moya : the Holy Spirit in an African
context.Pretoria: University of South Africa.
Notes: A project of the Institute for Theological Research
Bibliogr.: p. 126-133. - Met gloss., index
Anderson, Allan 1992: Bazalwane : African Pentecostals in
South Africa.Pretoria: University of South Africa.
Notes: A project of the Institute for Theological Research
Bibliogr.: p. 165-168. - Met bijl., index
Anderson, Allan 2000: Zion and Pentecost : the spirituality
and experience of Pentecostal and Zionist/Apostolic churches in South
Africa.Pretoria: Unisa Press.
Notes: Bibliogr.: p. 320-324. - Met gloss., index, noten
Anderson, Allan H. 1999: The Lekganyanes and prophecy in
the Zion Christian Church. Journal of religion in Africa vol. 29, no.
3, p. 285-312.
Abstract: The Zion Christian Church (ZCC) is the largest African initiated church in southern Africa and the second largest in Africa. Today, the paramount leader of the ZCC is the bishop, the only person to whom this title is given, and whose hereditary office is for life. The ZCC has passed through three generations of bishops from the Lekganyane family. The Lekganyanes demonstrate how the character of prophecy can change fundamentally in an African church across three generations of leadership. This paper traces the transition from an initial emphasis on charismatic leadership, where primary authority is vested in the founder and prophet-healer (as exemplified by the founder of ZCC, Engenas Lekganyane, c. 1880-1948), to a later emphasis on administrative leadership as personified by his grandson Barnabas (1954-), the present leader. Edward Lekganyane, son of Engenas and father of Barnabas, who was bishop from 1949 until his death in 1967, probably formed a bridge between them. Notes, ref
Anderson, Allan H. 2001: African reformation : African
Initiated Christianity in the 20th century.Trenton, N.J., [etc.]:
Africa World Press.
Notes: Auteursnaam op omslag: Allan H. Anderson
Bibliogr.: p. -271. - Met index, noten
Asamoah-Gyadu, J. K. 2005: African charismatics : current
developments within independent indigenous Pentecostalism in
Ghana.Leiden [etc.]: Brill.
Notes: Gebaseerd op proefschrift University of Birmingham, 2000
Met index, lit. opg
Avorgbedor, Daniel K. 2003: The interrelatedness of music,
religion, and ritual in African performance practice.Lewiston, NY
[etc.]: Edwin Mellen.
Abstract: The contributions in this collection address the interrelatedness of music, religion and ritual in African performance practice. Topics dealt with in particular include music, performance and indigenous religion and ritual, music and Islamic influence in West Africa, music and healing rituals, and performance in African and African-American Christianity. Contributions: A sound idea: belief and the production of musical spaces (Daniel Avorgbedor) - Gods and deputy gods: music in Yoruba religious and kingship traditions (Akin Euba) - 'Mukanda': boys' initiation in eastern Angola: transference, counter-transformation and taboo symbolism in an age-group related therapeutic intervention (Gerhard Kubik) - Performance as ritual, performance as art: therapeutic efficacy of 'dandanda' song and dance in Zimbabwe (Diane Thram) - 'Maresaka' and the value in things: 'tromba' spirit possession on the east coast of Madagascar (Ron Emoff) - The disease of the prophets: the musical construction of clinical reality (Steven M. Friedson) - Identifying witches: a performance by the Sing'anga Jonasi Masangwi (Moya Aliya Malamusi) - Where all things meet: performing spiritscapes in Shambaa healing (Barbara Thompson) - "I am able to see very far but I am unable to reach there": Ndugu Gideon Mdegella's 'Nyimbo za kwaya' (Gregory Barz) - Sacred space, ritual action, and processes of "textualization" in 'Ibandla lamaNazaretha' (Carol Muller) - Modes of ritual performance in African-American Pentecostalism (Thomasina Neely-Chandler) - Music and "ontological memory" among Senegalese Sufis (Allen F. Roberts and Mary Nooter Roberts). [ASC Leiden abstract]
Notes: Bibliogr.: p. 371-392. - Met bijl., noten
Ayegboyin, Deji and F. K. A. Ukah 2002: Taxonomy of
churches in Nigeria : a historical perspective. Orita : Ibadan
journal of religious studies vol. 34, no. 1/2, p. 68-86.
Abstract: Since the introduction of Christianity in Nigeria in the middle of the nineteenth century, different strands or versions of Christian traditions have developed. This article presents a taxonomy of churches in Nigeria based on patterns of historical growth, theological orientation, liturgical practices and sociopolitical orientation. It distinguishes mainline churches (sometimes also called historic, established, mainstream, orthodox or mission churches), Ethiopian Churches, African Indigenous Churches (AIC) and Pentecostalism (with at least four strands: classical, indigenous, charismatic and neo-pentecostal movements). Notes, ref. [ASC Leiden abstract]
Bate, Stuart C. 1999: Inculturation of the Christian
mission to heal in the South African context.Lewiston, N.Y. [etc.]:
Edwin Mellen Press.
Notes: Oorspr. uitg.: Pietermaritzburg : Cluster Publications, 1995
Bibliogr.: p. -359. - Met index, noten
Becken, H. J. 1971: A healing church in Zululand : "the
New Church Step to Jesus Christ Zion in South Africa". Journal
of religion in Africa vol. 4, no. 3, p. 213-222.
Abstract: In Msinga District of the Province of Natal the A. discovers a well-established parish of an Independent Church, which up to that time had not cared for any publicity whatsoever. In this church (the New Church Step to Jesus Christ Zion in South Africa) two persons are important: the administrative head who lives in Johannesburg and the prophet, the charismatic leader who lives in the district. It is to him that the members of the church turn for help in distress, for forgiveness and healing. The article describes the healing service quite detailed because it is the main aspect of the church. It ends with some remarks on how to understand this church. Notes
Biaya, Tshikala K.1999: Postcolonial State strategies,
sacralization of power and popular proselytization in Congo-Zaire,
1960-1995. In ln: Proselytization and communal
self-determination in Africa: (cop. 1999), p. 144-168. Pp.
Abstract: This chapter describes the changing interreligious configurations and political manipulations of religious constituencies in Zaire against the backdrop of the history of Zairian nationalism and the secularization of the postcolonial State, 1960-1995. It analyses the relationships, conflicts, tension, and alliances between the State and the established churches (Catholic, Protestant, and Kimbanguist) and the Islamic community in Zaire. It studies the reaction of the State and the established churches toward popular Pentecostalism, and briefly analyses popular forms of proselytization. The State emerges as the primary actor. Yet the proselytizing of the Zairian State can be seen as a failure to sacralize itself, and State endeavours to control or administer the covert and creative strategies employed by non-State actors in their efforts to proselytize and enjoy freedom of religious expression and association in the face of constraining political ideologies and institutions were unsuccessful. Bibliogr., notes
Bocquier, Philippe 2001: Anthropological studies.Nairobi:
Institut français de recherche en Afrique.
Abstract: This volume contains four anthropological studies on Kenya and Tanzania: Daniel Brockington: Communal property and degradation narratives: debating the Sukuma immigration into Rukwa Region, Tanzania. Yvan Droz: The local roots of the Kenyan Pentecostal revival: conversion, healing, social and political mobility. Philippe Bocquier: Asians in Kenya: an urban minority. A brief overview based on the 1989 census. Pheroze Nowrojee: Asian African Business - the national perspective
Notes: Met bibliogr., noten
Boutter, Bernard 2002: Le pentecôtisme à l'île
de la Réunion : refuge de la religiosité populaire ou
vecteur de modernité?Paris [etc.]: L'Harmattan.
Notes: Bibliogr.: p. 245-252. - Met noten
Brown, Duncan 1995: Orality and Christianity : the hymns of
Isaiah Shembe and the Church of the Nazarites. Current writing : text
and reception in Southern Africa vol. 7, no. 2, p. 69-95.
Abstract: Isaiah Shembe was a Messianic Zulu evangelist working in Natal (South Africa) between 1911 and 1935. He founded the Church of the Nazarites, an independent church which sought to revitalize Zulu society through the maintenance and revival of social customs and mores, many of which were rejected by the mission churches. At the same time, by syncretizing the belief systems of Zulu tradition with those of Christianity, and by hybridizing the Christian hymn with Zulu poetry, he created forms which expressed religious and political resistance to colonial oppression. Shembe's hymns are part of a popular art form, which has received little or no critical attention - compared to writers who worked in the 'elite' genres of the novel and the lyric/epic poem. Textually, Shembe's compositions are certainly strongly influenced by the Christian hymn, but they also utilize many of the formal patterns of 'izibongo' (Zulu praise poems). The hymns were performed in a call-and-response style and constituted a ritual of empowerment for Shembe's followers, almost all of whom had been politically and economically marginalized. Bibliogr., notes, ref
Brown, Duncan 1999: Oral literature & performance in
southern Africa.Oxford: James Currey.
Abstract: The chapters in this volume analyse the complex functioning of oral texts and models in differing contexts in South Africa. Isabel Hofmeyr outlines trends in South African oral performance studies. Karin Barber focuses on African oral praise poetry and Liz Gunner on orality in the liberation struggle and in postapartheid South Africa. 'Izibongo' and narrative autobiography in South Africa is the subject of Judith Lütge Coullie, while Jeff Opland examines the image of the book in Xhosa oral poetry. Thengani H. Ngwenya analyses Naboth Mokgatle's 'The autobiography of an unknown South African' (1971); Michael Chapman Nelson Mandela's 'A long walk to freedom' (1994); Keith Breckenridge Charles Van Onselen's ' The seed is mine: the life of Cas Maine, a South African sharecropper, 1894-1985' (1996); and Craig MacKenzie A.W. Drayson's 'Tales at the outspan, or Adventures in the wild region of southern Africa' (1862). Finally, the following topics are dealt with: Ju/'hoan storytelling aesthetics, by Megan Biesele; 'Kiba' performers from South Africa's Northern Province, by Deborah James; the hymns of Isaiah Shembe and the Church of the Nazarites, by Duncan Brown; and Zulu 'maskanda' performance, by Carol Muller
Notes: Met index, noten
Bruijn, Mirjam d. and Rijk v. Dijk 2001: Mobile Africa :
changing patterns of movement in Africa and beyond.Leiden [etc.]:
Abstract: The case studies in this book on mobility in sub-Saharan Africa critically discuss dichotomous interpretations of mobility and reject the idea that migration indicates a breakdown in society. They adopt the approach that sedentary and mobile worlds converge and that mobility is part of the livelihood system of African people. Contents: Mobile Africa: an introduction (Mirjam de Bruijn, Rijk van Dijk & Dick Foeken) - Population mobility in Africa: an overview (Han van Dijk, Dick Foeken & Kiky van Til) - Territorial and magical migrations in Tanzania (Todd Sanders) - Moving into another spirit province: immigrants and the 'mhondoro' cult in northern Zimbabwe (Marja Spierenburg) - Cultures of travel: Fulbe pastoralists in central Mali and Pentecostalism in Ghana (Mirjam de Bruijn, Han van Dijk & Rijk van Dijk) - Mobile workers, urban employment and 'rural' identities: rural-urban networks of Buhera migrants, Zimbabwe (Jens A. Andersson) - Migration as a positive response to opportunity and context: the case of Welo, Ethiopia (Jonathan Baker) - Multi-spatial livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa: rural farming by urban hosueholds - the case of Nakuru town, Kenya (Dick Foeken & Samuel O. Owuor) - Urbanisation and migration in sub-Saharan Africa: changing patterns and trends (Cecilia Tacoli) - Processes and types of pastoral migration in northern Côte d'Ivoire (Youssouf Diallo) - Mobility and exclusion: conflicts between autochthons and allochthons during political liberalisation in Cameroon (Piet Konings) - Population displacement and the humanitarian aid regime: the experience of refugees in East Africa (Patricia Daley)
Notes: Met bibliogr., noten
Bruijn, Mirjam d., Han v. Dijk, and Rijk v. Dijk2001:
Cultures of travel: Fulbe pastoralists in central Mali and
Pentecostalism in Ghana. In Mobile Africa : changing patterns
of movement in Africa and beyond: (2001), p. 63-88 : krt. Pp.
Abstract: In the literature on population mobility, mobility has generally been seen as a temporary phenomenon. However, in many instances, mobility rather than sedentarity is the norm. This is illustrated in the present chapter by two case studies of so-called 'cultures of travel'. The first case concerns the Fulbe, a nomadic cattle-rearing people, in the Hayre area of central Mali. The Fulbe case demonstrates how mobility has been embedded historically in Sahelian cultures under conditions that are marginal, both from an ecological and an economic perspective. It illustrates how people develop economic and cultural strategies marked by a high degree of opportunism. It shows that Fulbe society is, in fact, organized around mobility. The second case, that of Pentecostalism in Ghana, demonstrates how a specific form of culture acts to bring about a particular form of mobility. In this case, it is not a whole culture that is on the move, but individuals who are mobile for personal reasons. Mobility among Ghanaian Pentecostalists is not yet part and parcel of daily life, but presents an example of how people construct cultural forms and means for dealing with everyday problems of mobility. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum
Bryceson, Deborah and Ulla Vuorela 2002: The transnational
family : new European frontiers and global networks.Oxford [etc.]:
Abstract: This collection of papers emanates from a conference on migrant families in Europe held at the African Studies Centre, Leiden, November 1999. Migrant networks, in the form of families, associational ties and social organizations, stretch across the globe, connecting cultures and bridging national boundaries. The book stresses the impact that transnationalism has on people's family lives and lifestyles. It includes the following contributions on Africa: Transnational families: imagined and real communities, by Ulla Vuorela (focusing on an Asian family that lived amongst others in Tanzania); Deceitful origins and tenacious roots: Moroccan immigration and new trends in Dutch literature, by Daniela Merolla (generational relationships in Moroccan immigrant families in the Netherlands are approached through the writings of Hafid Bouazza and Abdelkader Benali); Righteous or rebellious? Social trajectory of Sahelian youth in France, by Mahamet Timera; Religion, reciprocity and restructuring family responsibility in the Ghanaian Pentecostal diaspora (in the Netherlands), by Rijk van Dijk; Hybridization of religious and political practices amongst West African Muslim migrants in Paris, by Monika Salzbrunn; Senegal's village diaspora and the people left ahead (on the organization of Senegalese village-based communities in France), by Abdoulaye Kane
Notes: Papers from a conference on migrant families in Europe held at the African Studies Centre, Leiden, in November 1999
Met bibliogr., index, noten
Bryceson, Deborah F. 2002: Alcohol in Africa : mixing
business, pleasure, and politics.Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Abstract: This collective volume on alcohol in Africa is divided into five parts. Part 1 (Introduction): two papers by Deborah Fahy Bryceson presenting general background about alcohol's utilitarian value in African society and a historical overview; Part 2 (Business interests): Justin Willis on brewing among the Nyakyusa of southwestern Tanzania; Nite Baza Tanzarn on 'waragi' production in Kibaale District, Uganda; Michael K. McCall on the environmental implications of cottage brewing. Part 3 (Political contests): Jan-Bart Gewald on colonial liquor controls in Windhoek, Namibia; Simon Heap on liquor revenue in Nigeria; Jon Abbink on alcohol and cultural hegemony in Maji, southern Ethiopia; Roy van der Drift on cashew wine and the authority of elders among the Balanta in Guinea-Bissau; Tuulikki Pietilä on drinking among market women and gender politics in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Part 4 (Social comforts and discomforts): Emmanuel Akyeampong on youth drinking in circumstances of limited life chances in independent Ghana; Sabine Luning on beer brewing, rituals and religious conversion in Maane, Burkina Faso; Rijk van Dijk on Pentecostalism and the moral rejection of alcohol in Malawi. Part 5 (Conclusion): Deborah Fahy Bryceson on the darker side of alcohol: alcohol consumption levels that are deemed socially undesirable
Notes: Met bibliogr., index, noten
Corten, André 2001: Le discours de la réconciliation
et les nouvelles Églises au Rwanda. Afrique contemporaine :
documents d'Afrique noire et de Madagascar no. 200, p.
Abstract: La majorité des neuf millions de Rwandais se déclarent chrétiens et la moitié catholiques. Les Églises protestantes auraient réuni, dans les années 1980, un million de fidèles (13 pour cent de la population). De nouvelles dénominations de type pentecôtiste se sont ouvertes au Rwanda depuis 1994, souvent fondées par des exilés de retour au pays, provenant du Burundi, du Congo, de l'Ouganda, du Kenya ou de la Tanzanie. Il existe parallèlement une Église interne, dont les membres n'ayant jamais quitté le pays. Un discours de réconciliation se développe dans les deux types de dénominations. Il se présente dans le premier cas sous le jour du pardon et de l'oubli, et dans le second sous celui de la culpabilité et de l'attente millénariste. Cette étude souligne la contradiction structurelle entre ces attitudes qui se développent en parallèle. Elle montre aussi les raisons de l'expansion de l'Association des Églises de Pentecôte du Rwanda, dont le nombre d'adeptes aurait doublé entre 1994 et aujourd'hui. Le pentecôtisme répond à un besoin accru d'émotion et de non-différenciation, et permet d'y trouver une issue où même les anciens ennemis auront leur place, dans une démarche interne différente du politique. En Afrique du Sud, par contraste, la réconciliation a pris une connotation politique avec la création en 1996 de la Truth and Reconciliation Commission sous la présidence de D. Tutu. Mais le thème de la réconciliation n'y est pas, comme au Rwanda entre Tutsi minoritaires et Hutu majoritaires, la traduction religieuse d'un rapport de forces défavorable. Cependant, dans les deux pays, la référence religieuse est omniprésente. Notes, réf
Corten, André 2003: Rwanda: du Réveil
est-africain au pentecôtisme. Canadian journal of African
studies vol. 37, no. 1, p. 28-47.
Abstract: Dans les années 1930 naît au Rwanda un mouvement de réveil connu sous les noms de 'abaka' ou de 'balokole'. Ce mouvement essaime rapidement dans les pays de l'Est africain, en particulier l'Ouganda et le Kenya. Par ses similitudes avec le pentecôtisme, par son millénarisme et par son caractère transterritorial, le Réveil est-africain (REA) favorise dans une phase ultérieure le développement d'un pentecôtisme africain. Aujourd'hui, le term 'balokole' est utilisé dans le langage courant rwandais pour désigner les pentecôtistes. Le REA met l'accent sur la conversion plutôt que sur l'instruction, il reprend des hymnes d'origine africaine et accorde une place décisive aux laïcs. Quant au pentecôtisme, il connaît au Rwanda trois périodes: il est introduit en 1940 par des Suédois; se propage rapidement dans les années 1960; et à partir de 1994, il connaît un tournant. Le millénarisme du REA et celui du pentecôtisme première période sont transformés par la transnationalisation marquée tant dans la circulation des discours et des rituels que dans la formation de nouveaux imaginaires. Le millénarisme du pentecôtisme transnationalisé, ou néopentecôtisme, donne des bases d'identité aux populations dans le cadre de la reconfiguration transterritoriale actuelle de l'Est africain. Bibliogr., notes, rés. en anglais. [ASC Leiden abstract]
Cox, James L. 1998: Rites of passage in contemporary Africa
: interaction between Christian and African traditional
religions.Cardiff: Cardiff Academic Press.
Abstract: The papers collected in this volume were presented at a conference on rites of passage and the interaction between Christian religion and African traditional religions, which was held in Harare on 21-24 June 1994. Part I comprises case studies of ritual interaction between traditional and Christian practices: T. Jack Thompson deals with the Ngoni of northern Malawi, Denis M'Passou with rites of passage among the Swazi (Swaziland), Teresa Cruz e Silva and Ana Loforte with the approach of the mission towards Tsonga ritual in southern Mozambique, and Klaus Fiedler with Christian marriage in Zaire and Kenya. Part II considers the role of the High God - Mwali in Kalanga, Mwari in Shona - in Zimbabwe (Leslie S. Nthoi, M.L. Daneel). Part III contains contributions on initiation, marriage and death rituals: Isabel Apawo Phiri discusses the initiation of Chewa women (Malawi), Felix Chingota the opposition to initiation rites from within the Blantyre Synod of the Presbyterian Church in Malawi, J.C. Chakanza the response of the Roman Catholic Church to puberty rites in southern Malawi, T.M. Hinga female circumcision among the Agikuyu of Kenya, Matthews A. Ojo the views of some charismatic groups in Nigeria on marriage and sexuality, Paul Gundani the Roman Catholic Church and the 'kurova guva' (ancestors) ritual among the Shona (Zimbabwe), and Jude Ongang'a death rituals among the Luo of Kenya. There is an introduction by James L. Cox and an epilogue by M.F.C. Bourdillon
Notes: Sel. van papers van een conferentie gehouden op de Universiteit van Zimbabwe (gevestigd te Harare) van 21-24 juni 1994, met als thema 'The Interaction between Christian Religion and African Traditional Religions: Focus on Rites of Passage'
Met lit.opg. en index
Craemer, Willy d. 1976: A sociologist's encounter with the
Jamaa. Journal of religion in Africa vol. 8, no. 3, p.
Abstract: The Jamaa is a charismatic, mystically oriented religious movement, which developed inside the Catholic Church in Zaire in 1953. After an analysis of the beliefs, rites and symbols of the Jamaa, the author describes its relations with the bishop and the Zairian government. In 1974 a special decree placed restrictions on the Jamaa and the movement ceased its public activities. Conclusion: the Jamaa will survive this underground period and develop in the future. Notes
Crumbley, D. H. 1992: Impurity and power: women in Aladura
churches. Africa : journal of the International African Institute
vol. 62, no. 4, p. 505-522.
Abstract: What is there about being female which elicits religious rituals of control? More specifically, what is there about menstrual blood which elicits a language of ritual impurity? What is the relationship between exclusion from the sacred and exclusion from power? This article, based on fieldwork among the Aladura or 'praying' churches of Nigeria (1982 to 1986), explores these questions in three Aladura denominations, Christ Apostolic Church, the Church of the Lord-Aladura, and the Celestial Church of Christ. While these three 'spiritual' churches share similar features in being indigenous, healing and prophesying churches, the status and roles of women in their respective organizational structures vary remarkably. The article investigates the ways in which an ideology of impurity impacts or fails to impact upon gender and power relationships. It argues that an explanation of such variations requires consideration not only of general theories of male dominance and structural ambiguity but also of the impact of the unique cultural legacy of the Aladura institutions, the structural role of ritual in the churches, and their ecumenical involvement. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum. in English and French
Crumbley, Deidre H. 2003: Patriarchies, prophets, and
procreation: sources of gender practices in three African churches.
Africa : journal of the International African Institute vol. 73, no.
4, p. 584-605.
Abstract: The Celestial Church of Christ, the Christ Apostolic Church, and the Church of the Lord (Aladura) are indigenous churches in Nigeria, which share the selective blending of Christian and Yoruba religious traditions; however, their gender practices, specifically female access to decisionmaking roles, vary dramatically. The Celestial Church's prohibition against the ordination of women is associated with ritual impurity. Christ Apostolic excludes women from ordination, but without an explicit ideology of impurity. The Church of the Lord (Aladura) ordains women but prohibits them from the sanctuary when they are menstruating. Do these institutionalized constraints derive from colonial or precolonial gender practices? What other factors might contribute to these gender patterns? This paper argues that these gender practices derive from intersecting ambiguities in Western and African gender practices, which both empower and disempower women. The paper also assesses the interplay of doctrine and institutional history in gender dynamics. Finally, it explores the interaction of cultural legacy and socioenvironmental pressures in the ritualization of the female body in this African setting. App., bibliogr., notes, ref., sum. in English and French. [Journal abstract]
Cummergen, Paul 2000: Zionism and politics in Swaziland.
Journal of religion in Africa vol. 30, no. 3, p. 370-385.
Abstract: This paper explores the place of Zionism in Swazi society. It does so by examining the available literature on Zionism in Swaziland, looking at the origins and development of Swazi Zionism and at its contemporary social and political context. In this way, Swazi Zionism is shown to be a distinctive and significant social and religious phenomenon. Bibliogr., note., sum
Daneel, M. L. 1999: Environmental mission and liberation in
Christian perspective.Pretoria: Unisa Press.
Notes: Bibliogr.: p. 396-399. - Met gloss., index, noten
Daneel, M. L. 2000: Earthkeeping in missiological
perspective : an African challenge.Boston: African Studies
Notes: Bibliogr.: p. 43-46. - Met noten
Daneel, Marthinus L. 2001: African Christian outreach
Vol. 1: African Initiated Churches.Menlo Park: South African Missiological Society.
Abstract: This collective volume on African Initiated Churches (AICs) contains papers delivered at the January 1997 joint congress of the Southern African Missiological Society (SAMS) and the 'African Initiatives in Christian Mission' research project. Following the General introduction by Marthinus L. Daneel, Part 1 (Towards an appraisal of AICs in mission) includes papers by Marthinus L. Daneel (AIC designs for a relevant African theology of missions, case of Zimbabwe) and Jerald D. Gort (precondition for a responsible hermeneutics for mission). Part 2 (AICs as missionary institutions: theoretical, typological and historical considerations) presents papers by Allan Anderson (the mission initiatives of African Pentecostals in continental perspective); Hennie Pretorius (Zion: profile and self-perception in South Africa's Cape Flats); Ogbu U. Kalu (the demonisation of the Aladura in African pentecostal rhetoric); Greg Cuthbertson (African Christianity, missionaries and colonial warfare in South Africa at the turn of the 20th century); Roswith Gerloff (the significance of the African Christian diaspora in Europe). Part 3 (AIC voices from inside) includes spoken and written 'voices from inside' by prominent AIC representatives, viz. Lydia August, Reuben Marinda, Kenosi Mofokeng, Senamo Molisiwa, Ndumiso Ngada, Temba Ntongana, Chris O. Oshun (healing practices among Nigeria's Aladura Pentecostals) and Solomon Zvanaka (salvation in socioeconomic perspective), with an editor's introduction. Part 4 (AIC women in mission) contains papers by Isabel A. Phiri (two case studies from Malawi); Lilian Dube-Chirairo (mission and deliverance in the Zvikomborero Apostolic Faith Church, Zimbabwe); and Marthinus L. Daneel (AIC women as bearers of the Gospel good news). [ASC Leiden abstract]
Notes: Met bibliogr., noten
Daneel, Martinus L. 1998: African Earthkeepers.Pretoria:
Darkwah, Akosua K. 2001 Aid or hindrance? : faith gospel theology and Ghana's incorporation into the global economy. Ghana studies vol. 4, p. 7-29.
Abstract: During the last two decades there have been major transitions in the political and religious arenas in Ghana. As Ghana has been more widely exposed to the forces of globalization, there has been an upsurge in religious groups, especially those drawing on faith gospel theology like the Christian Action Faith Ministries (CAFM) and the International Central Gospel Church (ICGC). In this paper the author argues that indubitably membership of such organizations helps Ghanaians cope with the economic realities of life in post-structural adjustment Ghana. Such mental support is fine, but he finds that while such membership does allow Ghanaians to participate in the world economy, this is almost invariably in the role of consumer and not of producer. Ghanaians as a whole do not confront the market as producers as this does not conform to the patterns laid down by their newly accepted theology. The author sees Ghana's economic rescue in such Pentecostal leaders as Mensa Otabil, who propagate a much more economically pro-active policy. Bibliogr., notes, ref. [ASC Leiden abstract]
De Craemer, Willy 1977: The Jamaa and the Church : a Bantu
Catholic movement in Zaïre.Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Abstract: This book is a sociological study of the Jamaa (Swahili for family), a charismatic mystically orientated religious movement which developed within the Catholic Church in Zaïre in the 1950s, and which persists to this day. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 and 3 deal with the origin and development of the Jamaa and with the characteristics of its social structure. Chapters 4 and 5 focus on the culture: doctrine, ritual and expressive symbolism of the Jamaa are discussed. Chapters 6-8 analyse the major interaction patterns of the Jamaa, and their social and cultural consequences, the role-set of its lay and clerical members, the distinctive subculture, the formal as well as informal influence and reaction of the institutional church to the Jamaa. Finally, chapter 9 attempts a synthesis of the findings through a discussion of the Jamaa's theoretical implications for the sociology of religion, social movements, affect and kinship
Decraene, Philippe 2001: La République du Congo
reste une terre d'élection pour les Églises africaines.
Afrique contemporaine : documents d'Afrique noire et de Madagascar
no. 200, p. 82-89.
Abstract: Il existait de nombreuses Églises africaines au Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) dès avant l'indépendance. Le matswanisme et le kibanguisme ont été fondés au début du vingtième siècle. Au terme de vingt-huit ans de régime socialiste et surtout après le retour de la paix civile, en décembre 1997, et l'installation au pouvoir du général Denis Sassou Nguesso, le nombre des Églises africaines n'a cessé de se multiplier. Cet article passe en revue les diverses obédiences des religions traditionnelles et des religions nouvelles et mouvements messianiques. L'Église kimbanguiste regroupe actuellement environ deux pour cent des Congolais. Il faut noter l'imprégnation de la vie sociale par le religieux et l'importance du phénomène nouveau de l'apparition des Églises du Réveil. On dénombrerait plus de 400 Églises indépendantes. L'obédience religieuse fait partie des systèmes de pouvoir où les principaux acteurs politiques se livrent leur lutte réciproque. Le pouvoir d'État dans le contexte postcolonial africain est l'enjeu de compétitions où l'appartenance religieuse et tribale persiste et se singularise. Notes, réf
Devisch, René 1996: 'Pillaging Jesus': healing
churches and the villagisation of Kinshasa. Africa : journal of the
International African Institute vol. 66, no. 4, p. 555-586.
Abstract: Charismatic healing churches permeate all layers of society in present-day Kinshasa, the capital of Zaire. Now numbering hundreds, they represent in part a response to Belgian colonial intrusion, the modern State and capitalist consumerism. Confronted with economic collapse and miserable conditions in urban areas, these churches seek to empower their communities by filling the void left by the discrediting of elders' authority in town and the bankruptcy of the party-State. The dogmatic use they make of biblical texts, their immoderate liturgy, and above all their ostentatious healing rituals parody and ridicule oppression by the colonial and postcolonial State, the dichotomization of society as a consequence of Christian conversion, and postcolonial mirrors which oppose modernity and tradition, Christian values and pagan beliefs. Focusing on the so-called churches of the holy spirit, 'mpeve ya nlongo' or 'mpeve ya vedila', especially those which have developed among the Koongo people originating from Lower Zaire, this article shows that these charismatic churches are taking over, in their own terms, the programme of cultural decolonization set out by the Zairian State in the 1970s and early 1980s. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum. in English and French. (A French version of this article is published in: Phénomènes informels et dynamiques culturelles en Afrique, sous la dir. de G. de Villers, Bruxelles, 1996, p. 91-138.)
Devisch, René 1998: Genezingskerken in Kinshasa en
beteugeling van de crisis in de instellingen. Bulletin des séances
année 44, no. 4, p. 583-608.
Abstract: In de twintigste eeuw hebben zich in Congo honderden onafhankelijke christelijke profetische genezingskerken verspreid. De groei van deze buurtkerken of familie-kerkgemeenschappen kreeg een nieuwe impuls met de crisis van Staat en economie in de jaren '80. Dit essay, gebaseerd op jaarlijks veldwerk sinds 1987, belicht de kerken van de heilige geest en die van de voorouderlijke geest in en rond de hoofdstad Kinshasa, vooral kerken van de oorspronkelijk uit Neder-Congo afkomstige Koongo. Parodiërende vormen van cultus en rituelen van deze charismatische kerken belichamen kritische bezinning op westerse cultuuruitingen. Het spreken in tongen (glossolalie), geestenuitdrijving en genezing bieden het visioen van een wereld waarin frustratie en discriminatie zijn opgeheven. In een parodie van gebaren en spreken neemt het door de geest bezeten individu afstand van slecht of niet functionerende moderne publieke postkoloniale instellingen, zoals bestuur, gezondheidszorg en onderwijs. Extatisch spreken parodieert het objectief discours van de bureaucratie, orthodoxe kennis en religie. De genezingskerken zetten de culturele dekolonisatie voort die Mobutu's eenpartijstaat had ingeluid. Ze bewerkstelligen een nieuwe identiteit van het individu in zijn gemeenschap. Bibliogr., noten, samenv. in het Nederlands, Engels en Frans
Dijk, R. A. 1992: Young puritan preachers in
post-independence Malawi. Africa : journal of the International
African Institute vol. 62, no. 2, p. 159-181.
Abstract: Abstr.: In Blantyre, Malawi's main urban centre with a population of over 400,000, there are some thirty to forty young preachers who between them run fifteen or so organizations that constitute the Born Again movement. The organizations include 'ministries' and 'fellowships' as well as 'churches'. The movement started c. 1974. What is significant is that all the leaders were then teenagers; even today the second 'generation' of preachers are teenagers or in their early twenties. One theme dominates their message: vehement opposition to involvement in practices of a largely secretive or malevolent nature, witchcraft and 'politics' in particular. The young preachers assume these forces to be the basis of the power that elders wield in the villages or in urban townships. Yet in Blantyre, where political surveillance over everyday life is very marked, they have to be wary of challenging this older, powerful generation if they are to preserve the 'intellectual space' that religion offers them. The article ends by arguing that the theories which are used to explain urban Zionist Churches elsewhere in southern Africa are not relevant to the analysis of a Born Again movement run by successful young urbanites. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum. also in French
Dijk, R. A. 1993: La guérisseuse du docteur Banda au
Malawi. Politique africaine no. 52, p. 145-150.
Abstract: Le 14 juin 1993, le peuple du Malawi s'est prononcé par référendum pour l'abolition du système du parti unique et pour l'introduction d'une démocratie pluripartite. Comment se fait-il que, en cette période pénible pour le Dr H. Kamazu Banda qui règne sur le pays depuis 30 ans, son entourage ait engagé une jeune guérisseuse qui a été appelée non seulement pour œuvrer pour la santé personnelle du président, mais pour 'guérir' la nation tout entière? Le succès de la guérisseuse en question, Linley Mbeta, très connue au Malawi, est lié à la forte montée du mouvement chrétien-fondamentaliste de 'ceux qui sont nés une seconde fois' que l'on constate au Malawi à partir des années 1970. C'est une représentante d'une tradition puritaine dont faisaient également partie les mouvements anti-sorcellerie des années 1930 et 1940. Tandis que l'on croit au Malawi que le pouvoir politique des 'anciens' repose sur l'association à des forces occultes, les mouvements puritains sont dirigés par des jeunes qui ne sont pas encore 'contaminés' par la manipulation des forces occultes. L'idéologie puritaine procure à ses fidèles la certitude d'avoir accès à des forces spirituelles bien supérieures à celles dont disposent leurs rivaux. C'est cette certitude-là qui doit avoir séduit le vieux dictateur. Notes
Dijk, Richard v.1992: Young Born-Again preachers in
post-independence Malawi: the significance of an extraneous identity.
In New dimensions in African Christianity / ed. by Paul
Gifford. - Nairobi : All Africa Conference of Churches: (1992), p.
55-79. Pp. 55-79.
Abstract: During the early 1970s Blantyre, Malawi's main urban centre, witnessed the emergence of a new religious phenomenon. Young boys and girls, referring to themselves as 'aliliki' (preachers), began to attract crowds by conducting large revival meetings. Today, there are some thirty to forty of these Born-Again preachers, who between them run about fifteen organizations. The young preachers promulgate a fundamentalist Christian doctrine characterized by strict morality. This article examines who these young preachers are and how they operate. It also analyses the role of glossolalia or speaking in tongues, arguing that the Born-Again youth find in this religious behaviour the means to claim moral superiority over the older generation. The article shows that the Born-Again identity is constructed in such a way that it fosters a sense of assertiveness among the young by suggesting a religious and moral authority which is exclusively reserved for the 'true' Christian. Notes, ref
Dijk, Rijk A. 1995: Fundamentalism and its moral geography
in Malawi : the representation of the diasporic and the
diabolical.London [etc.]: SAGE.
Abstract: Moral geographies of antiwitchcraft campaigns may be constructed from quite different vantage points and ideological programmes, as well as working upon quite diverse sets of relationships between the traditional and the modern, the young and the old, the diasporic and the diabolical. One vantage point is the village, and the moral geography that is constructed can be interpreted as a way of coming to grips with a partially apprehended modern world. The present author takes the urban world as point of departure in his analysis of the Abadwa Mwatsopano (Born-Agains), a Christian fundamentalist movement whose preachers operate specifically from the three larger cities of Malawi. For the young urban Born-Again preachers, it is the village world which is largely strange and estranging, only partially comprehensible, and threatening. It is not the 'tarmac' leading to the urban world which is the symbol of hope and despair for this younger generation, but witchcraft-related esoteric objects such as the 'zitumwa', that lead back to the village world and that are seen to jeopardize their frail independence in town. The 'crusade' is a counterattack against the evil forces emanating from the 'village' and a way of contesting the gerontocratic authority of the elderly in religious terms
Notes: Bibliogr.: p. 189-191. - Met noten
Overdr. uit: Critique of anthropology; vol. 15, no. 2, 1995, p. 171-191
Dijk, Rijk A. 2000: Christian fundamentalism in sub-Saharan
Africa : the case of Pentecostalism.Copenhagen: University of
Copenhagen, Centre of African Studies.
Abstract: This paper addresses the growth and spread of charismatic Pentecostal churches in sub-Saharan Africa as a fundamental turn in the development of African Christianity. It describes the basic features of African Pentecostalism and analyses some of its essential ideological parameters. It shows that a significant characteristic of Pentecostalism in Africa is its fascination with modernity, with modern styles of consumption, new technologies, and the achievement of a dominant position in modern everyday life. Its ideology appears to be profoundly inspired by an antitraditional and antinostalgic paradigm. Paradoxically, these new charismatic churches have developed into agents of change in countries such as Ghana and Malawi
Notes: A first draft of this paper was presented at a lecture at the Centre of African Studies in November 1998
Bibliogr.: p. 26-30. - Met noten
Dijk, Rijk A., Ria Reis, and Marja Spierenburg 2000: The
quest for fruition through ngoma : political aspects of healing in
southern Africa.Oxford [etc.]: James Currey [etc.].
Abstract: Ngoma, a southern African ritual of healing, dance, rhythm and rhyme, is at the heart of social effort to change the fortunes of individuals and communities so that well-being is restored. This collective volume investigates ngoma in its many and culturally diverse manifestations. Contributions: Rijk van Dijk, Ria Reis and Marja Spierenburg (introduction); Henny Blokland (the use of drums in weddings in Unyamwezi, Tanzania, as the key to their use in healing cults and politics); Annette Drews (gender and ngoma among the Kunda of eastern Zambia); Ria Reis (therapeutic ngoma in Swaziland); Marja Spierenburg (the influence of healers' clientele in the Mhondoro territorial cult in Dande, Zimbabwe); Matthew Schoffeleers (rain cults as therapeutic ngoma in the Mbona cult of rural Malawi); Cor Jonker (the politics of therapeutic ngoma as exemplified in the Zionist churches in urban Zambia); Rijk van Dijk (ngoma and born-again fundamentalism in urban Malawi). In the afterword, John M. Janzen takes up critically the challenges to his own work (1992) presented by the contributions in this volume
Notes: Met bibliogr., index
Dijk, Rijk A. v. 1992: Young Malawian puritans : young
born-again preachers in a present-day African urban
Abstract: Motivated by an interest in shifts in the social construction of authority and the inversion of established religious and moral power, the author carried out an anthropological study in Blantyre in 1988-1989 of a group of young Malawian preachers who proclaim Christian fundamentalist doctrines. Ch. 1 introduces the theoretical and thematic background to the research and discusses research techniques, including the criteria used to select a group of key informants from the larger population of young preachers. Not only structural and organizational differences, but also differences in socioeconomic status, in combination with age, distinguish the various preachers (ch. 2). Subsequent chapters explore the content and impact of the young preachers' religious messages (ch. 3), examine the wider framework of their activities and relate prevailing power relations in contemporary Blantyre to historical developments involving other instances of youthful authority (ch. 4 and 5). The final chapter presents an analytical framework for interpreting the young preachers' activities. The author suggests that a specifically religious conception of 'room for manoeuvre' characterizes the conditions faced by the young Born-Again preachers of Malawi, and that it is this free range of action in the religious realm that has permitted the young preachers to assume their own contextually significant religious identity
Notes: Proefschrift Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht
Met lit. opg., index en samenvatting in het Nederlands
Dijk, Rijk v. 1992: Van hegemonisch tot demonisch gezag :
jonge puriteinse predikers en iconoclastisch verzet.Amsterdam:
Universiteit van Amsterdam, Antropologisch-Sociologisch
Abstract: In een gerontocratie controleert men de jongeren door het in eigen hand houden van de controle van productie- en reproductiemiddelen, en het onderhouden van contacten met het bovennatuurlijke. Jongeren kunnen zich daarom moeilijk aan de invloed van de ouderen onttrekken. De jongere generatie in Afrika heeft echter door scholing en opleiding tegenwoordig de kans zich in economische zin aan deze controle te onttrekken, en er zijn voorbeelden waarin ook de religieuze terreur van de ouderen minder sterk wordt. In dit essay staat het verzet tegen de religieuze dominantie van ouderen in Malawi centraal. Sinds 1970 treden in Blantyre, Malawi's grootste stad, zeer jonge predikers (deeluitmakend van de 'Born-Again Movement') op die zich tijdens religieuze opwekkingsbijeenkomsten met name keren tegen het gezag van de traditionele dokters ('asing'anga') en het gebruik van magische en occulte krachten. Deze rigide afwijzing van de 'asing'anga', die in het alledaagse leven slechts een geringe invloed hebben, kan verklaard worden uit het feit dat zij de ouderen in het stedelijke Blantyre de mogelijkheid bieden hun macht te blijven uitoefenen
Bibliogr.: p. 211-212. - Met noten
Overdr. uit: Etnofoor = ISSN 0921-5158; no. 1/2 (1992), p. 188-212
Dijk, Rijk v. 1996: Foucault, hekserij en puritanisme in
Malawi : een expressionistische kritiek op Douglas' 'grid/group'
analyse. Focaal : tijdschrift voor antropologie nr. 28, p.
Abstract: Dit artikel onderzoekt de grenzen van de bruikbaarheid van het door Mary Douglas ontwikkelde 'grid-group' model aan de hand van het voorbeeld van de ontwikkeling van puriteinse (antihekserij) bewegingen in Malawi. De auteur stelt, dat de rehabilitatie van het individu als actief, handelend en manipulatief subject, waarmee Douglas in de jaren tachtig haar model verfijnde, onvoldoende is om veranderingsprocessen te kunnen verklaren. Wat ontbreekt is een notie van macht zoals Michel Foucault die heeft ontwikkeld. De centrale vraag van het artikel is op welke wijze er, gegeven het bestaan van bepaalde sociale controle-mechanismen in de samenleving, veranderende percepties van bewegingsvrijheid c.q. disciplinering op gang kunnen komen, gericht op het individuele lid van de samenleving. De winst van de benaderingen van Douglas en Foucault wordt vergeleken voor een analyse van bewegingen zoals de Abadwa Mwatsopano (Wedergeborenen) in Malawi. Hoewel men vanwege de preoccupatie in dergelijke bewegingen met reiniging de bruikbaarheid van Douglas' theorieën zou verwachten, blijkt Foucault's concept van een 'technology of the self' meer verklaring te kunnen bieden. Bibliogr., noten
Dijk, Rijk v. and Peter Pels1996: Contested authorities and
the politics of perception: deconstructing the study of religion in
Africa. In Postcolonial identities in Africa / ed. by Richard
Werbner and Terence Ranger. - London : Zed Books: (1996), p. 245-270.
Abstract: By bringing the active challenge to ethnographic authority by people written about to the fore, the authors of this chapter hope to raise some doubts about the matter-of-factness with which ethnographers maintain their identity as scholarly writers who do their research in some 'field' far away from 'home'. Focusing on the study of religion in Africa, they present two cases in which the tactical behaviour of both the anthropologists and their interlocutors challenges the hegemony of their attitudes towards each other's production of knowledge. The authors first discuss an element of anthropological fieldwork which, in practice, has been rare: the initiation of the researcher into secrets held by local religious leaders. Here, ethnographers (act as if they) accept the hegemony of the 'other' cultural practice while being initiated. Second, they describe a case from van Dijk's own fieldwork and show how the researcher was obliged to go through a penitential exercise after having produced a text in a popular magazine which insufficiently recognized the inspirational authority of religious leaders in the field (Born-Again preachers in Blantyre, Malawi). Bibliogr., notes, ref
Dijk, Rijk v. 1997: From camp to encompassment: discourses
of transsubjectivity in the Ghanaian Pentecostal diaspora. Journal of
religion in Africa vol. 27, fasc. 2, p. 135-159.
Abstract: This article explores the role of religion in identity formation in situations where individuals are engaged in intercontinental diasporic movement, starting from R.P. Werbner's notion that religion and strangerhood transform together. In particular, the author examines the diaspora of Ghanaians in the Netherlands and the role Ghanaian Pentecostalism appears to play in the forming of their identity as strangers in Dutch society. The author uses the term 'transsubjectivity' to indicate those processes by which religion deals with strangerhood as shaped by the power of the modern African and Western nation-State. He distinguishes two discourses in present-day Ghanaian Pentecostalism. The first, which he calls 'sending' discourse, involves so-called prayer camps in Ghana, to which (prospective) migrants may turn for spiritual help and protection in their transnational travel. The second, or 'receiving', discourse relates to the figure of the Pentecostal leader in the diaspora who represents the "abusua panyin", the family head. These two discourses 'inject' the migrant differently into transnational interconnectedness, and they deal differently with the body personal and the ways in which techniques of the self are employed in constructing the subjectivity of the Ghanaian as migrant and stranger. Bibliogr., notes
Dijk, Rijk v.1998: Pentecostalism, cultural memory and the
State: contested representations of time in postcolonial Malawi. In
Memory and the postcolony : African anthropology and the critique of
power / ed. by Richard Werbner. - London [etc.] : Zed Books: (1998),
p. 155-181. Pp. 155-181.
Abstract: In various parts of Africa, Pentecostalism underscores the necessity for its members to make a complete break with the past. Although Pentecostalism speaks a language of modernity in which there is a past-inferior versus a present-superior dichotomy whereby the believer is prompted to sever all ties with former social relations in the search for new individuality, it would be a mistake to argue that Pentecostalism stops here. On the contrary, the author argues that because the moment of instant rebirth is seen as the power base from which new future orientations are constructed, Pentecostalism may swing in different modalities from a disembedding of the subject from past social relations to a re-embedding in relations with a different temporal orientation. This is illustrated by the case of the Pentecostalist movement of 'Abadwa Mwatsopano' (Born Again) in urban areas of Malawi, and most of all in the largest city, Blantyre. This movement rose against the official discourse in Malawi, which fetishes the remembrance of the country's cultural past. Conversion narratives of young fundamentalists remember the past only to deny it. For the Born Again movement, the truth lies with a Christian future, utopian in its emancipatory promise. Bibliogr., notes, ref
Dijk, Rijk v. 1999: Pentecostalism, gerontocratic rule and
democratization in Malawi : the changing position of the young in
political culture.New York: St. Martin's Press.
Abstract: This chapter explores the relationship between the father-metaphor, gerontocratic power, democratization and religion in the context of changing political culture in Malawi. It argues that democratization in Malawi signalled a change in the nature of the dominant gerontocratic power relations associated with Chewa political traditions, and gave the young an opportunity to escape from their tightly circumscribed sociopolitical space in what for thirty years had been a highly supervised society. It further argues that religion, in particular 'born-again' (often Pentecostal) Christianity, played a significant role in changing the meaning of the crucial root paradigm of gerontocracy in Malawian political culture. The chapter shows that the position adopted by religious youth groups in the 1990s was the outcome of a 'struggle for youth' that Malawian society had faced since colonial times and in which religion played a significant role. In so doing, it deconstructs the so-called 'conservative nature' of Christian fundamentalism-cum- Pentecostalism
Notes: Bibliogr.: p. 185-188. - Met noten
Overdr. uit: Religion, globalization and political culture in the Third World / ed. by Jeff Haynes; p. 164-188
Dijk, Rijk v. 1999: Plunder hell, to populate heaven : the
extractive and the insertive in the Ghanaian Pentecostal diaspora.The
Abstract: This paper examines the tension between professed individuality and performed dividuality in the Pentecostal ideology of the African diaspora in the Netherlands. The central notion of the paper is that in diasporic movement and its representation in Pentecostalism, technologies of the self are located in movement and provide an account of direction, of why and where boundaries and porosity are more closed in some instances than in others. Individuality and dividuality, belonging and citizenship, should be turned from nouns into verbs, while the ideologies that prescribe direction should be analysed in terms of their capacity to move, transfer, extract or insert. The paper is based on research among the Pentecostal churches that have emerged in the Ghanaian migrant community in The Hague since 1989, in particular the House of Truth Gospel Church International (a pseudonym)
Notes: Bibliogr.: p. 26-31. - Met noten
Dijk, Rijk v.1999: The Pentecostal gift : Ghanaian
charismatic churches and the moral innocence of the global economy.
In Modernity on a shoestring : dimensions of globalization,
consumption and development in Africa and beyond / ed. by Richard
Fardon, Wim van Binsbergen and Rijk van Dijk. - Leiden [etc.] :
EIDOS: (1999), p. 71-89. Pp. 71-89.
Abstract: The paradigm of the enchanted global economy and the moral perils of involvement with foreign commodities suggests that anxieties about the generally immoral powers believed to exist within foreign objects result from an imperfect understanding of the global marketplace. However, urban Pentecostalists in Accra, Ghana, who are deeply engaged in the global economy, do not fear the moral dangers of commodities as such and do not lack an understanding of modern global capitalism. Ambiguities do arise when commodities are turned into gifts. Gifts carry sentiments, messages and intentions, and the obligation to give or to receive them may contain dangers. In dealing with this dilemma, Pentecostalism creates a space where free gifts can be given without material reciprocity, where commodities can be personalized without invoking evil powers, where its members can be delivered from the powers that emanate from the 'fie', the "house" or "shrine" of an ancestral deity, conveyed by gifts that cannot be refused, and where gifts may signal the purity of the giver's heart and soul. This multilayered gift-ideology and gift-economy enables Ghanaian Pentecostalism to occupy a pivotal position between the global economy and its own transational and transcultural relations, on the one hand, and local cultural structures dominated by gifts and reciprocal relations, on the other. Bibliogr
Dijk, Rijk v.2001: Time and transcultural technologies of
the self in the Ghanaian Pentecostal diaspora. In Between
Babel and Pentecost : transnational Pentecostalism in Africa and
Latin America: (cop. 2001), p. 216-234. Pp. 216-234.
Abstract: The new forms of charismatic Pentecostalism that have swept over sub-Saharan Africa are very much the product of transnational and transcultural modernity; this particular form of Christianity demands a complete break with the past. Pentecostalism in modern African societies is both a debate within modernity as well as a discourse on modernity. It deals with the predicament of many living in the urban areas of a country like Ghana who experience on a daily basis modernity's imbalances and inequalities. It presents a corridor to the global world and has developed intimate relations with the 'new diaspora' of Ghanaian migrants to the West. As the new Pentecostalism appears to cut across national and cultural borders, it can best be studied within the context of an anthropology of transnationalism. This approach investigates how identities are formed in situations where, as a result of diasporic flows, communities arise that neither seem to have a firm 'geographical' anchor nor the means to create the individual as a local, cultural subject. This chapter first examines the urban forms of Pentecostalism in Ghana, then locates them within a diasporic, transnational context; and finally concludes by discussing the constitution of the subject within these various modes. Bibliogr., notes, ref
Dijk, Rijk v.2001: Witchcraft and scepticism by proxy :
Pentecostalism and laughter in urban Malawi. In Magical
interpretations, material realities : modernity, witchcraft and the
occult in postcolonial Africa: (2001), p. 97-117. Pp.
Abstract: From the mid-1970s, the younger generation in Malawi has largely supported the spread of a new kind of charismatic Pentecostalism. Small groups of itinerant preachers began moving around Malawi's urban areas. Their Christian fundamentalist message always touched on the issue of witchcraft as the centre of innate evil. Focusing on the street-preachers' movement in Chilomoni, a township of Blantyre, particularly the Miracle Power of God-Fellowship, this chapter shows that the Pentecostal ideology presented by these preachers and their charismatic fellowships created space to experience witchcraft in terms of mockery, laughter and amusement. Scepticism about certain witchcraft cases became an important element in the movement's exercise of spiritual power. The chapter concludes by emphasizing the need for a socioculturally inspired analysis of the scptical style that emerges as the distinguishing mark of these modern religious formations. Bibliogr., notes, ref. [ASC Leiden abstract]
Dijk, Rijk v. 2001: Contesting silence : the ban on
drumming and the musical politics of Pentecostalism in Ghana. Ghana
studies vol. 4, p. 31-64.
Abstract: During the Fourth Republic in Ghana there has been an unprecedented growth in Pentecostalism. The chief message of Pentecostalism is the contestation of tradition. It encourages members to abandon the past and traditions and to adopt a completely new way of life, unemcumbered by the sins of the ancestors. Their rejection of their heritage has erupted into violence in Accra, largely as the result of their transgressing of the ban on drumming and silence during the Homowo Festival. This is an ancient Ga ritual which requires silence and tranquility for more than a month after the ritual planting of the crops. Music, mostly adapted Western music, is essential to Pentecostal services but their pursuit of it during the period of ritual silence led to a violent attack on one of their chapels. On the basis of fieldwork carried out in Accra and among a diaspora community in The Hague, the author draws some conclusions about a number of dialogues which are going on at different levels, more numerous and more complicated than what would appear to have been a fairly simple dispute about the transgressing of ritual silence. Bibliogr., notes, ref. [ASC Leiden abstract]
Dijk, Rijk v. 2002: Localising anxieties : Ghanaian and
Malawian immigrants, rising xenophobia, and social capital in
Abstract: This report discusses some of the findings of exploratory research among Ghanaian and Malawian migrants in Gaborone, Botswana, which was carried out in March and November 2001. Over the last two decades, Botswana has been the focus of immigration from Ghana and Malawi. In recent years, this African immigration has been followed, as elsewhere, by the introduction of a charismatic and popular form of Christianity known as Pentecostalism. The position of Ghanaians and Malawians has been debated in the public media in the context of wider discussions on foreigners in Tswana society. Lately, these debates have hardened in tone, and the Botswana government is increasingly taking measures against the privileges these immigrants may have enjoyed. The report looks in particular at the ideological, i.e. religious dimensions of the Ghanaian and Malawian predicament in this tense context with the aim of formulating further research questions. [ASC Leiden abstract]
Notes: Bibliogr.: p. 62. - Met bijl., noten
Dijk, Rijk v.2002: Ghanaian churches in the
religion mediating a tense relationship. In Merchants, missionaries & migrants : 300 years of Dutch-Ghanaian relations: (2002), p. 89-97 : foto's. Pp. 89-97.
Abstract: Although Ghanaians have formed a substantial immigrant community in the Netherlands for decades, the relationship between the Dutch State and the Ghanaian community remains tense. Not only is Ghanaian life in the Netherlands generally marked by a high level of suspicion with regard to the Dutch State, but the community itself has long taken over certain functions that are otherwise provided by the State. This chapter explores the dimensions of this tense relationship. It pays specific attention to the many Ghanaian churches that have emerged in the Netherlands and the role they play in the creation of a notion of self-reliance and self-esteem. There is some evidence to suggest that religious structures in Ghana have a history of antagonism with regard to State policies. This feature seems to have been carried over into the Netherlands. The Ghanaian churches do not take part in the formal contacts between the government and Ghanaian interest groups, and hardly take part in the formal structures of Dutch religious life. The moral authority they represent within the Ghanaian community is a distinctive one. The chapter first examines aspects of Ghanaian immigration, before focusing on the position of Ghanaian churches in the migrant community. Bibliogr
Dijk, Rijk v.2002: Religion, reciprocity and restructuring
family responsibility in the Ghanaian Pentecostal diaspora. In
The transnational family : new European frontiers and global
networks: (2002), p. 173-196. Pp. 173-196.
Abstract: This chapter demonstrates how Ghanaian migrants in the Netherlands look to the Pentecostal Church for the deconstruction of Ghanaian traditions in favour of international mobility. The Pentecostal Church strongly identifies and propagates notions of individualism and the nuclear family. In this way traditional matrilineal social organization is displaced by more Western-style conjugality mediated by Pentecostalist beliefs. The author argues that the appeal of Pentecostalism is based on the opportunities it provides for bringing kinship obligations under the supervision of its individual members. Pentecostalism reformulates the hierarchical and obligatory gift-giving system upon which kinship relations are based. It subjects reciprocity to moral supervision while making it thoroughly multilocal. his is of particular significance in the diaspora where many migrants see themselves faced with the obligation to send money to relatives living n Ghana and elsewhere. Bibliogr., notes. [ASC Leiden abstract]
Dijk, Rijk v.2002: Modernity's limits: Pentecostalism and
the moral rejection of alcohol in Malawi. In Alcohol in Africa
: mixing business, pleasure, and politics: (cop. 2002), p. 249-264.
Abstract: In the mid-1970s, teenagers and secondary school and university students suddenly took to the streets of Malawi's main urban areas to proclaim a moral reordering of society based on Christian fundamentalist notions. A whole array of Pentecostal groups emerged. The striking feature of this born-again charismatic Pentecostalism is its rigid insistence on a strict moral ideology and a denunciation of alcohol. The author investigates the rejection of alcohol in Malawi's Pentecostal moral order from two perspectives: first, against the backdrop of developments in Malawi's Independent Christianity movement, and, second, in relation to the modernist debate that this type of Pentecostalism represents. The author concludes that the rejection of the use of alcohol by the born-again preachers coincides with a deeper generational conflict. This has had ramifications since it emerged in the context of the Banda regime that relied on gerontocratic power structures. Against this background one can argue that the debate about alcohol was, and still is, a modernist one, a discourse that allows for the moral rejection of things and structures emerging from the impure and threatening 'past'. Bibliogr. [ASC Leiden abstract]
Dijk, Rijk v. 2003: Localisation, Ghanaian Pentecostalism
and the stranger's beauty in Botswana. Africa : journal of the
International African Institute vol. 73, no. 4, p. 560-583.
Abstract: This contribution considers the current position of the Ghanaian migrant community in Botswana's capital, Gaborone, at a time of rising xenophobic sentiments and increasing ethnic tensions among the general public. The article examines anthropological understandings of such sentiments by placing them in the context of the study of nationalisms in processes of State formation in Africa and the way in which these ideologies reflect the position and recognition of minorities. In Botswana, identity politics indulge in a liberalist democratic rhetoric in which an undifferentiated citizenship is promoted by the State, concealing on the one hand inequalities between the various groups in the country, but on the other hand defending the exclusive interests of all 'Batswana' against foreign influence through the enactment of what has become known as a 'localization policy'. Like many other nationalities, expatriate labour from Ghana has increasingly become the object of localization policies. However, in their case xenophobic sentiments have taken on unexpected dimensions. By focusing on the general public's fascination with Ghanaian fashion and styles of beautification, the numerous hair salons and clothing boutiques Ghanaians operate, in addition to the newly emerging Ghanaian-led Pentecostal churches in the city, the ambiguous but ubiquitous play of repulsion and attraction can be demonstrated in the way in which localization is perceived and experienced by the migrant as well as by the dominant groups in society. The article concludes by placing entrepreneurialism at the nexus of where this play of attraction and repulsion creates a common ground of understanding between Ghanaians and their host society, despite the government's hardening localization policies. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum. in English and French. [Journal abstract]
Dijk, Rijk v.2003: Pentecostalism and the politics of
prophetic power: religious modernity in Ghana. In Scriptural
politics : the Bible and the Koran as political models in the Middle
East and Africa: (cop. 2003), p. 155-184. Pp. 155-184.
Abstract: Focusing on Ghana, this chapter examines the religious transformation from prophetism to Pentecostalism which has occurred in many parts of Africa. The African prophets who emerged from the early 20th century developed syncretic combinations of traditional and modern culture and generally rejected Western religious leadership in the churches. In contrast, Pentecostal churches, especially of the so-called second Pentecostal wave from the 1970s, are based on direct personal inspiration and are strongly opposed to local cultural traditions. Prophetic and Pentecostal movements represent two different models of religious power in society and two ways of using the Bible as a model. The author examines the political implications of these different principles of scriptural interpretation. While the prophetic biblical model is largely place-oriented, the Pentecostal model is basically a politics of time: the old person and the old society have to 'die' to be replaced by a new one. Notes, ref. [ASC Leiden abstract]
Dijk, Rijk v. 2004: Negotiating marriage: questions of
morality and legitimacy in the Ghanaian Pentecostal diaspora. Journal
of religion in Africa vol. 34, no. 4, p. 438-467.
Abstract: Among the many immigrant groups that have settled in the Netherlands, migrants recently arrived from Ghana have been perceived by the Dutch State as especially problematic. Explicit measures have been taken to investigate marriages of Ghanaians, as these appeared to be an avenue by which many acquired access to the Dutch welfare State. While the Dutch government tightened its immigration policies, many Ghanaian Pentecostal churches were emerging in the Ghanaian immigrant communities. An important function of these churches is to officiate over marriages; marriages that are perceived as lawful and righteous in the eyes of the migrant community but nonetheless do not have any legal basis as far as the Dutch State is concerned. This contribution explores why the Ghanaian community attributes great moral significance to the marriages that are taking place within their Pentecostal churches. It investigates the changing meaning of the functions of Pentecostal churches in Ghana and in the Netherlands by distinguishing civil morality from civic responsibility. It seeks to explore how, in both contexts, legitimacy is created as well as contested in the face of prevailing State-civil society relations. This exploration indicates why, in both situations, Pentecostalism is unlikely to develop into a civic religion in the full sense of the term. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum. [Journal abstract]
Dorier-Apprill, Élisabeth 1996: Les enjeux
sociopolitiques du foisonnement religieux à Brazzaville.
Politique africaine no. 64, p. 129-135.
Abstract: Depuis la Conférence nationale de 1991, les nouvelles 'Églises de réveil' connaissent une prolifération sans précédent au Congo, notamment à Brazzaville. Celles-ci médiatisent de plus en plus le lien social, générant de nouveaux réseaux de solidarité au sein de la population citadine. Le pluralisme religieux se nourrit des contradictions de la modernité urbaine brazzavilloise, en tant qu'aspiration à l'ouverture économique et culturelle dans un contexte de récession et d'accentuation des tensions politiques et sociales. On peut distinguer aujourd'hui les Églises populaires et les Églises des élites. Le pluralisme religieux accompagne l'émergence de nouvelles élites urbaines, en particulier parmi de jeunes générations diplômées qui se trouvent évincées de la sphère de l'emploi moderne ou de celle du pouvoir politique. Les implantations religieuses s'inscrivent dans le tissu urbain suivant les logiques de différenciation sociospatiales. De plus, les Églises sont devenues le lieu par excellence où se développe le processus d'ouverture médiatique et d'insertion dans des réseaux internationaux. De par leur éthique puritaine, les Églises deviennent les partenaires privilégiés des coopérations occidentales de plus en plus méfiantes quant à l'efficacité des institutions d'État. Notes, réf
Dorier-Apprill, Élisabeth and Abel Kouvouama 1998:
Pluralisme religieux et société urbaine à
Brazzaville. Afrique contemporaine : documents d'Afrique noire et de
Madagascar no. 186, p. 58-76.
Abstract: Les régimes à parti unique du Congo révolutionnaire avaient instauré un contrôle de la vie religieuse, la loi ne reconnaissant que sept Églises. La liberté de culte proclamée en 1991 favorisa à Brazzaville une expansion et une diversification fulgurantes de l'offre religieuse qui participe du double processus de différenciation sociale et de recherche de nouvelles solidarités que les récentes années de crise économique, de décomposition politique et les guerres n'ont fait qu'accélérer. Cette offre religieuse est marquée par le regain des Églises prophétiques historiques et le foisonnement des cultes néotraditionnels qui revendiquent avec force la tradition, et vont de pair avec des recompositions identitaires autour de l'ethnicité et de l'ancrage territorial, et une multiplication de nouvelles Églises indépendantes évangéliques et pentecôtistes locales ou exogènes (européennes, anglo-saxonnes, brésiliennes) qui véhiculent, au contraire, des valeurs universalistes. Les Églises favorisent les solidarités, les modes de vie conviviaux, l'insertion des jeunes sans emploi, mais offrent aussi aux élites des espaces d'expression. Bibliogr., notes, réf., rés. en français et en anglais (p. 130)
Dovlo, Elom 1998: The Church in Africa and religious
pluralism : the challenge of new religious movements and charismatic
churches. Exchange : bulletin de littérature des églises
du Tiers Monde vol. 27, no. 1, p. 52-69.
Abstract: The main challenge to the Church in Africa is religious pluralism, due to the spread of various new religious movements (NRMs). This article sets out first to indicate the variety and types of NRMs, with examples mostly from Ghana. Five main groups are identified: new African traditional religious movements; Oriental NRMs, Western new age movements and esoteric self-improvement societies of Eastern ethos; NRMs from the African diaspora; Islamic NRMs; and Christian NRMs. It then discusses the intellectual, social, spiritual and leadership challenges that these movements pose to the Church, and reviews the Church's reactions. In Ghana the Church has little knowledge or concern about the NRMs, except where they affect its work or are perceived as political in nature. However, the NRMs appear to reaffirm the continuing importance of religion in offering spiritual solutions to secular problems and providing guidance for social conduct. In doing so they reveal that the churches are slow to recognize society's changing needs and therefore fail to address them. The Church should stop confining itself to theological appraisal - and dismissal - of the NRMs and instead learn about the NRMs in terms of their beliefs and practices. In order to meet the challenge, they must examine the causes of their attraction and their conversion and recruitment techniques. Bibliogr
Dovlo, Elom 2004: African culture and emergent church forms
in Ghana. Exchange : bulletin de littérature des églises
du Tiers Monde vol. 33, no. 1, p. 28-53.
Abstract: The term 'African Initiated Churches' covers three types of churches in Ghana. Two of these are the earliest Independent Churches, which emerged in the colonial era (the mainline churches) and immediate postcolonial era (the Spiritual Churches). The third type and the newest to emerge are termed the Neo Pentecostal Churches, or Charismatic Churches. They began to spread especially in West Africa in the 1980s. These churches are normally credited with active engagement with African culture and therefore inculturation of the Gospel. Inculturation is a process, and its dynamic in Ghana is a complex ongoing process in which the emergent Church forms at various times engage with different African contexts. The process therefore not only reflects the evolution of Christianity, but also the evolutions in African culture. This paper reviews the genesis of these new church forms in Ghana and their engagement with African culture and context. Notes, ref., sum. [ASC Leiden abstract]
Droz, Yvan 1997: Si Dieu veut... ou suppôts de Satan?
: incertitudes, millénarisme et sorcellerie chez les migrants
kikuyu. Cahiers d'études africaines vol. 37, cah. 145, p.
85-117 : ill., krt., tab.
Abstract: Les pratiques migratoires qui permettaient aux Kikuyu du Kenya central de se réaliser en tant qu''hommes accomplis' sont aujourd'hui dans une impasse écologique et politique. L'auteur montre comment cet idée de l''homme accompli', qui reste au centre de l'ethos kikuyu, explique l'attachement aveugle à une culture totalement inadaptée aux conditions écologiques (le maïs). Les migrants, récemment installés sur le plateau de Laikipia, gèrent cette situation en projetant dans l'imaginaire religieux et de la sorcellerie la solution aux difficultés vécues. Ils attendent une intervention divine qui modifie le régime des pluies ou un sauveur politique qui leur 'rende' le pouvoir national qui leur est 'dû'. Ces cultivateurs expliquent leur situation en attribuant l'origine de leurs problèmes à Satan, dont le pouvoir politique 'kalenjin' du président Daniel arap Moi (l'un des fondateurs du groupe ethnique kalenjin) serait l'émanation. Les nombreuses Églises pentecôtistes, des prophètes et des prédicateurs proposent une ultime recours face à une situation apparemment sans issue et permettent aux migrants de survivre dans des conditions autrement inacceptables. Bibliogr., notes, réf., rés. en français et en anglais
Droz, Yvan2001: The local roots of the Kenyan Pentecostal
revival : conversion, healing, social and political mobility. In
Anthropological studies: (2001), p. 23-44. Pp. 23-44.
Abstract: This article aims to explain the current Kikuyu conversion to Pentecostalism on the basis of the Kikuyu belief in invisible forces as one of the causes of the wealth of the powerful and of the misfortune of the needy. It is from this point of view that the success of the Pentecostal movement in Kenya, which claims to manipulate the occult forces to hasten the return of God's kingdom and heal the faithful, is interpreted. The millenarianist expectation of the Second Coming of Christ is at the heart of the conversion process and of the interest that sustains Pentecostalism. Also, the 'truth' of faith or of conversion cannot be disembedded from 'traditional' practices and understandings of social mobility and therapeutic processes. Bibliogr., notes, ref
Droz, Yvan 2001: Les formes du millénarisme en pays
kikuyu. Bulletin des séances année. 47, suppl., p.
Abstract: L'attente millénariste de la seconde venue du Christ renforce l'intérêt que suscite aujourd'hui le pentecôtisme au Kenya central et explique partiellement la vague de conversions qu'il induit. Pourtant, les attentes millénaristes ne se limitent pas aux mouvements pentecôtistes, puisqu'on les retrouve dans l'ensemble de la population toutes affiliations religieuses confondues. Ceci suggère que l'attente millénariste n'est pas un élément propre au christianisme, mais qu'il s'agit d'un schème de perception et d'explication d'un monde qui paraît incertain et offrant peu de perspectives d'avenir. En outre, la conversion n'est pas un phénomène inédit, car elle est enchâssée dans la reproduction sociale des sociétés précoloniales continuant ainsi à proposer un mode d'action contre le malheur en général et les maladies en particulier. Ainsi, ce schème millénariste, ou cette "voie de l'imaginaire", traverse les différentes affiliations religieuses. L'auteur en précise les diverses expressions au cours du 20ème siècle en pays kikuyu. Il évoque les prophètes précoloniaux et certains aspects de l'organisation sociale, les Églises indépendantes de la première moitié du siècle, l'ethos de l'homme accompli des Kikuyus, les interprétations millénaristes que la guerre civile des Mau-mau a pu recevoir, et le pentecôtisme aujourd'hui. Bibliogr., notes, réf., rés. en français, en néerlandais et en anglais. [Résumé extrait de la revue]
Dube, D.1989: A search for abundant life : health, healing
and wholeness in the Zionist Churches. In Afro-Christian
religion and healing in Southern Africa / ed. by G.C. Oosthuizen ...
[et al.]. - Lewiston, N.Y. [etc.] : Edwin Mellen Press: (cop. 1989),
p. 109-136. Pp. 109-136.
Abstract: This paper dicusses various rituals found in Zionist Churches in Africa and their relationship to healing. It demonstrates the relationship between the traditional African worldview and the beliefs and practices of Zionist type churches. The author's thesis is that Zionists see illness as a mystical factor which impairs health and prevents an individual from taking an active part in his society. This thesis underlines the definition of illness as a religious issue. The healing work of Zion is a search for abundant life, synonymous with salvation. The author discusses African ideas about health and the factors which account for impaired health. These ideas are basic to the understanding of the apparent preoccupation with healing practices in African-guided church movements such as the Zionists. Next, the author examines the notion of 'umoya' (spirit, a life-giving and health-bearing force) in Zionist healing, Zionist healing rites and life-enhancing objects, the communal context of Zionist healing, the importance of wholeness in African life, and Zionist concern for the person. The author contends that the attraction of Zion for Africans results from its life-enhancing activities viz. the management of 'umoya' and healing. The observations outlined here are based on research in the Durban urban and peri-urban areas (South Africa). Notes, ref
Dupré, Marie C. 2001: Familiarité avec les
dieux : transe et possession (Afrique noire, Madagascar, la
Réunion).Clermont-Ferrand: Presses Universitaires Blaise
Abstract: Les recherches publiées dans ce volume rendent compte de l'observation de phénomènes de transe dans les sociétés d'Afrique noire et de l'océan Indien et s'efforcent d'établir leur contextualisation. En effet, l'urbanisation n'efface pas les anciens usages qui rattachaient les vivants aux ancêtres et aux divinités de terroir. Une fois le contact établi, une communication dotée de règles précises, préparée par un apprentissage parfois précoce, continue de s'instaurer. Titres des études: Possession, transe ou dialogue? Les formes récentes de la communication avec les ancêtres en Imerina (Madagascar) (Sophie Blanchy - Rahajesy Andriamampianina); Le 'Dévinèr' et son épouse: religion, transe, thérapie et rapports conjugaux à l'île de la Réunion (Laurence Pourchez); Entre exorcisme et culte de possession. Le s.éw des Dìì de l'Adamanoua (Nord-Cameroun) (Jean-Claude Muller); De la rigueur des anciennes initiations aux transes d'inspiration chrétienne; exemples au Sud-Cameroun (Nicolas Monteillet); Lemba, de la transe à la richesse, trois siècles de construction religieuse dans le bassin du Niari (Congo, République démocratique du Congo) (Marie-Claude Dupré); 'Celles qui tombent' chez les Tammariba du Togo (Dominique Sewane); Origines et transformations d'un culte de possession chez les Manjak de Guinée-Bissau et du Sénégal (Maria Teixeira); Les transes dans les Églises du Bénin (Albert de Surgy); Vigueur des possessions vodu; transes récentes chez les catholiques du Renouveau charismatique au Sud-Togo (Adjévi Hobli Mensah); Corps et oracle. La transe divinatoire du 'kômian' (Côte d'Ivoire) (Véronique Duchesne)
Notes: Met bibliogr., noten, Engelse en Franse samenvatting
Met CD-ROM: Familiarité avec les dieux, transe et possession Afrique noire, Madagascar, la Réunion
Edwards, F. S.1989: Amafufunyana spirit possessions:
treatment and interpretation. In Afro-Christian religion and
healing in Southern Africa / ed. by G.C. Oosthuizen ... [et al.]. -
Lewiston, N.Y. [etc.] : Edwin Mellen Press: (cop. 1989), p. 207-225 :
tab. Pp. 207-225.
Abstract: The author presents a detailed study of 'amafufunyana' spirit possession and its treatment by Zionist prophets based on her own observations in the Eastern Cape, with one case in Transkei. The most characteristic diagnostic feature of this illness is that, at the climax of the disorder, voices are heard speaking from within the patient. The author analyses an example of typical Zionist treatment of 'amafufunyana' spirit possession in Grahamstown. Reasons for the occurrence of this type of spirit possession are suggested, on the basis of which a typology emerges. Six types of 'amafufunyana' spirit possession are discerned: 1) a 'victim' envied by someone in the community; 2) a 'victim' personnally unable to cope with a situation; 3) a group of 'victims' unable to cope; 4) mass 'amafufunyana' possession; 5) 'amafufunyana' as the effect of a 'love potion'; 6) 'amafufunyana' as a condition caused by 'idliso' (a poison obtained from a herbalist) but without spirit possession. The author concludes that the logic of 'amafufunyana' spirit possession requires links to be identified between sociocultural conditions, including political elements, and traditional understanding of harmony, misfortune and the spirit world. Notes
Edwards, F. S.1989: Healing: Xhosa perspective. In
Afro-Christian religion and healing in Southern Africa / ed. by G.C.
Oosthuizen ... [et al.]. - Lewiston, N.Y. [etc.] : Edwin Mellen
Press: (cop. 1989), p. 329-345. Pp. 329-345.
Abstract: Consciousness and healing are connected in the holistic understanding of reality held by Mr. Ntshobodi, head and prophet-healer of the Apostolic Holy Church in Zion (AHCZ), a Xhosa Zionist community, in Grahamstown (South Africa). This paper traces the connections Mr. Ntshobodi himself makes between consciousness and his understanding of what he is doing when he is healing. He discerns different kinds of consciousness: 'living consciousness', 'conscience', and 'dead consciousness'. The sickness of a person is in his consciousness. Mr. Ntshobodi's own 'living consciousness' must be 'clean and strong', in order to be able to prophesy and heal from the transpersonal level of consciousness. 'Cleanness of consciousness' is a serious issue since in both diagnosis and healing he frequently takes upon himself whatever is afflicting the patient. Prophecy is first and foremost diagnosis of sickness, but it also identifies the cause of the affliction. The author presents a detailed description of the Wednesday night healing service led by Mr. Ntshobodi. In conclusion, a parallel is drawn between Mr. Ntshobodi's therapy and that of a prophet-healer in Canada, which shows striking similarities
Ellis, Stephen and Gerrie t. Haar 1997: Religion and
politics in Africa. Afrika Zamani : revue annuelle d'histoire
africaine no. 5/6, p. 221-246.
Abstract: All religion is based on a belief in the existence of invisible forces which influence human destiny. So important is belief of this sort in contemporary thought, the authors argue, that many Africans appear to believe that the widely attested malaise of their public life may be explained largely by reference to these invisible forces. Among the evidence for this assertion is the rapid growth of movements of religious renewal or revival which are to be found in all parts of Africa today. Some of the ideas articulated by and within these movements may be construed as a critique of the way in which power is organized. This article discusses what power is and how it is represented from various points of view before examining the political implications of the growth of new religious movements in Africa, Bibliogr., notes, ref
Elongo Lukulunga, Vicky 2002: La surchristianisation au
quotidien à Kinshasa: une lecture de l'autre face de la
religion. Congo-Afrique : économie, culture, vie sociale année
42, no. 368, p. 463-479.
Abstract: L' auteur s'interroge sur l'ampleur qu'affiche le phénomène de la religion en République démocratique du Congo, particulièrement dans la ville de Kinshasa, à travers notamment ce que l'on appelle les Églises chrétiennes indépendantes ou Églises chrétiennes de réveil. Ces Églises se définissent d'obédience pentecôtiste. Ce phénomène est à mettre en rapport avec celui de la précarité des conditions socioéconomiques, qui entraîne la nécessité des pratiques de la "débrouille". Elle est aussi révélatrice d'une vide spirituel, le chrétien congolais accusant les structures traditionnelles de "manque de chaleur". L'auteur qualifie ces Églises de "néo-pentecôtistes", car en réalité ce n'est pas la gloire de Dieu qui est célébrée, et il s'agit d'affairisme religieux. La recherche des intérêts chez les pasteurs correspond à la quête d'un refuge intérieur chez les fidèles. La doctrine de la prospérité révèle un lien étroit entre le matériel et le spirituel, comme si le premier était l'expression du dernier. Pour certains chercheurs, il est question d'"escroquerie religieuse". Les Églises de réveil peuvent contribuer à la perturbation de l'image du paysage spatial, du climat social ou familial. En conclusion, l'auteur suggère des moyens de revaloriser le religieux dans la société congolaise en responsabilisant l'être humain et repensant le rôle de réglementation de l'État. Notes, réf. [Résumé ASC Leiden]
Elphick, Richard and Rodney Davenport 1997: Christianity in
South Africa : a political, social & cultural history.Oxford:
Abstract: This collective volume covers the many ways Christanity has manifested itself in the political, social and cultural history of South Africa. Part 1 covers the period 1652 until Union in 1910 (Jonathan N. Gerstner on the Reformed Church under Dutch rule; Elizabeth Elbourne & Robert Ross on early missions in the Cape Colony; Rodney Davenport on the churches of 19th-century European immigrants; together with chapters on the spread of Christianity among the Xhosa, by Janet Hodgson, the Zulu and Swazi, by Norman Etherington, the Tswana and Sotho, by Roger B. Beck, and the whites and blacks in Transorangia, by Irving Hexham & Karla Poewe). Part 2 covers the period since 1910, dealing with the Afrikaner churches (Johann Kinghorn); English-speaking churches (John W. De Gruchy); Lutheran churches (Georg Scriba with Gunnar Lislerud); the Catholic Church (Joy Brain), African initiated churches (Hennie Pretorius & Lizo Jafta), and the Pentecostals (Allan A. Anderson & Gerald J. Pillay). Part 3 examines Christianity in South African subcultures: the gold mine compounds (Tshidiso Maloka), women's Christian organizations (Deborah Gaitskell), the urban Western Cape (Robert C.-H. Shell), Christianity and the Jews (Milton Shain), and among Indian South Africans (Gerald J. Pillay). Part 4 contains chapters on Christianity and literature (Jeff Opland), music (Barry Smith, David Dargie), and architecture (Dennis Redford). Part 5 focuses on South African Christians and how they criticized the hierarchical and segregationist policies of successive South African governments (chapters by Wallace G. Mills, Richard Elphick, Eugene M. Klaaren and Peter Walshe)
Notes: Met index, noten
Engelke, Matthew 2004: Discontinuity and the discourse of
conversion. Journal of religion in Africa vol. 34, no. 1/2, p.
Abstract: This paper focuses on the conversion narrative of a man in the Johane Masowe weChishanu Church, an apostolic church in Zimbabwe. Taking up recent discussions within anthropology on Pentecostal and charismatic churches, the author shows how apostolics talk about conversion as a distinct break with 'African custom'. It is argued that anthropologists of religion need to take such narratives of discontinuity seriously because they allow us to understand better the dynamics of religious change. Bibliogr., sum. [Journal abstract]
Englund, Harri 2000: The dead hand of human rights:
contrasting Christianities in post-transition Malawi. The journal of
modern African studies : a quarterly survey of politics, economics
and related topics in contemporary Africa vol. 38, no. 4, p.
Abstract: The preoccupation of donors, political leaders, NGOs and churches with human rights has inspired little analysis as to how the 'human rights talk' may limit an understanding of social and political problems. Malawi's current liberalization policy has embraced the discourse of rights with such vigour that it is becoming the only language persons in public offices are able to speak. This article examines practices and discourses in Catholic and Pentecostal churches in Malawi in order to show how the claiming of human rights as 'natural' may be unwarranted. The article shows that the 'human rights talk' can marginalize other ways of conceiving of human dignity and values, and there may be different approaches to politics even in the same churches. It contrasts in particular elite and lay practices in Catholic and Pentecostal churches in Malawi. Drawing upon rural and urban fieldwork, the article reveals variation as much within as between these two forms of Christianity. Rather than documenting a wholesale rejection of the 'human rights talk', the article draws attention to the situational use of different moral ideas. Accordingly, the article's plea is for an appreciation of the true pluralism of moral ideas. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum
Englund, Harri 2003: Christian independency and global
membership : Pentecostal extraversions in Malawi. Journal of religion
in Africa vol. 33, no. 1, p. 83-111 : tab.
Abstract: Recent scholarship on Pentecostalism in Africa has debated issues of transnationalism, globalization and localization. Building on J.-F. Bayart's (1993 and 2000) notion of extraversion, this scholarship has highlighted Pentecostals' far-flung networks as resources in the growth and consolidation of particular movements and leaders. The present article examines strategies of extraversion among independent Pentecostal churches. The aim is less to assess the historical validity of claims to independency than to account for its appeal as a popular idiom. The findings from fieldwork in a township in Malawi show that half of the Pentecostal churches there regard themselves as 'independent'. Although claims to independency arise from betrayals of the Pentecostal promise of radical equality in the Holy Spirit, independency does sustain Pentecostals' desire for membership in a global community of believers. Pentecostal independency thus provides a perspective on African engagements with the apparent marginalization of the subcontinent in the contemporary world. Two contrasting cases of Pentecostal independency reveal similar aspirations and point out the need to appreciate the religious forms of extraversion. Crucial to Pentecostal extraversions are believers' attempts to subject themselves to a spiritually justified hierarchy. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum. [Journal abstract]
Enuwosa, J. 1999: Healing by material means in Jesus'
miracles, Pentecostal and Igbe new religious movements among the
Urhobo of the Niger Delta. Africana Marburgensia vol. 32, no. 1/2, p.
Abstract: There is a rapid spread of Pentecostal churches in Urhobo subregion (Nigeria). The increasing interest in Pentecostal activity is kindled by the fact that the Pentecostal churches practise healing by material elements. Examination of the context in which Urhobo Christians practise healing miracles reveals some striking similarities between Pentecostal Christianity and the Igbe sect in Urhobo traditional religion. Both heal by faith and material substance. They practise exorcism, glossolalia, frenzy ecstasy, prophecy and short moving choruses. In both God is believed to be the healer. Healing is done by touching and anointing with oil. Spittle is an important healing substance, and the garments of the ministers and the priests are believed to have healing power. Healing and exorcism are looked upon as the manifestation of the power of God over the power of evil. These have enabled Igbe to withstand the shock and pressure of the evangelical activities of Urhobo Pentecostal churches. Igbe, therefore, is in a suitable position to compete favourably with contemporary Christian healing crusades. Notes, ref
Fabian, J. 1966: Dream and charisma : "theories of
dreams" in the Jamaa-movement (Congo).St. Augustin:
Abstract: This research is guided by two basic assumptions: 1) A charismatic movement is an attempt at (re-)orientation in a situation of stress and cultural anomy. It is therefore mainly concerned with ideas and ideology. 2) In order to understand the specific formulation of these ideas and the acceptance by a group, it is necessary to start with an analysis of the charismatic leader. In terms of these assumptions this paper has two goals. First, to show that charismatic leaders do have in fact a "theory of dreams"; that they are aware, and make deliberate use, of a potential source of ideas and orientation in a charismatic situation. Second, to demonstrate that their "theories of dreams" are in fact "theories" in the sense of a set of concepts, definitions, and rules of application formulated by a leader claiming charismatic authority. This is done by interviewing two leaders of the same movement
Notes: Met bibliogr, noten
Overdruk uit: Anthropos; international review of ethnology and linguitics; offprint, vol. 61. 1966
Fabian, J. 1969: Le charisme et l'evolution culturelle : le
cas du mouvement Jamaa au Katanga. Études congolaises vol. 12,
no. 4, p. 92-116.
Abstract: 1. Considérations sur la raison de l'étude des mouvements charismatiques - 2. Applications - un document tiré du mouvement Jamaa au Katanga (Le texte; Le mouvement; La doctrine; Le message). Bibl., notes
Fabian, J.1979: Man and woman in the teachings of the Jamaa
movement. In The new religions of Africa / ed. by B.
Jules-Rosette: (1979), p. 169-183. Pp. 169-183.
Abstract: Examines the role of women as defined in the teachings of the Jamaa movement in the Shaba region of Zaire. Jamaa is the popular and, at times, massive response among African Catholics living in the urban industrial towns of the Zairean copperbelt to the teachings of Placide Temples, a Belgian missionary widely known as the author of Bantu Philosophy. Secitions: Bantu Philosophy - Jamaa conceptions of male-female relaitonship ideal interrelationships expressed in Jamaa discourse - the resolution of marital problems in Jamaa - a new religion in its larger social context. Notes
Fabian, J. 1979: Text as terror : second thoughts about
Abstract: The author made a study of Jamaa, a popular and at times massive response from African Catholics living in the urban-industrial towns of the Zairean copperbelt to the teachings of the Belgian missionary Placide Tempels. He now argues that charisma cannot be presented unequivocally as a source of creative change. "Change" (and charisma) may lead to, and, perhaps, thrive on, impoverishment, intransigence, righteousness, suffering, or plain boredom. These are all reactions and attitudes of individuals. In this paper he looks at their social manifestations. Appendix: A chronicle of recent confrontations between Jamaa and Mission Church in Shaba
Notes: Met noten
Overdruk uit: Social research, 46(1979), no. 1, p. 166-203
Fabian, Johannes 1969: Charisma and cultural change : the
case of the Jamaa movement in Katanga (Congo Republic).Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Abstract: After considering the rationale of studying charismatic movements, the author analyses a document from the Jamaa-movement in Katanga. He sorts out various implications of one element of Jamaa doctrine, the idea of uzazi (fecundity through parental-filial relationship) to which every single chapter in Jamaa doctrine refers as both the source and the goal of human existence. The result is that 'Jamaa' can be regarded, in Parsonian terms, as a boundary-maintaining system, both on the doctrinal and the behavioural level. Having touched upon the vertical-historical dimension of Jamaa doctrine, the horizontal-historical dimension should also be handled, but no satisfactory conceptual frame, which would allow a convincing ideological critique of the Jamaa phenomenon, has yet been found. A series of considerations that might indicate a possible solution is offered. Text: a document from the Jamaa-movement in Katanga. (In French: Etudes congolaises, 12 (1969), 4, p. 92-116.)
Notes: Met bibliogr., noten
Overdruk uit: Comparative studies in society and history; vol. 11 (1969), no. 2 (April), p. 155-173
Fabian, Johannes 1971: Jamaa : a charismatic movement in
Katanga.Evanston, Ill: Northwestern University Press.
Abstract: In 1953 Father Placide Tempels, the writer of "La philosophie bangoue" was appointed pastor to a mining camp at Ruwe, near Kolwezi in Katanga. Here he soon formed the first "Jamaa" group, which based itself on ideas drawn from "La philosophie bantoue". The movement spread rapidly to the main urban mining centres in Katanga. The majority of adherents were recruited among Catholic-mission Christians. After 1960 the movement spread to most large cities in the Congo. Typically, Jamaa groups are intertribal, except in rural regions with a homogenous population. As yet the Jamaa is not a sect or separist church, for tis members remain within the fold of their local Catholic church. Introduction - 1. The movement - 2. The doctrine - Concluding summary - Epilogue. (Rev.: Africa, 1973, 2, p. 163-64 by R.G. Willis; Afr. St. Rev., 1971, 4, p. 517-19 by W. MacGaffey;
Notes: Bibliography: p. -277
Fabian, Johannes 1977: Lore and doctrine : some
observations on storytellings in the Jamaa movement in Shaba (Zaire).
Cahiers d'etudes africaines vol. 17, no. 2/3, p. 307-329.
Abstract: Jamaa (Swahili for "family") is a charismatic movement which originated in the early fifties among African Catholics in Zaire, most of them workers in the mining towns of Shaba (Katanga). Its initiator was a European missionary, Placide Tempels. The problem examined here is how this new religious movement is integrated into its own discourse (statements of beliefs) the forms and contents of existing discourses. More concretely: how does a movement emphasizing verbal, and standardized, forms of communication deal with the oral lore of its cultural environment? The author first presents a text - an animal story - in the original Shaba variety of Swahili and a translation. Then he describes the ethnographic context in which this text was produced. Finally, he offers an interpretation of the story based on its narrative structures and on certain lexical and semantic clues to its "hidden" meaning, i.e. to links between traditional lore and Jamaa doctrine. Bibl., notes, French summary
Fabian, Johannes 1978: Popular culture in Africa : findings
and conjectures. Africa / International African Institute vol. 48,
no. 4, p. 315-334.
Abstract: In order to show that (religious) movements must be understood as developments in the context of emerging popular culture, the author chooses as a central theme and field of comparison certain conceptualizations and images of the male-female relationship. He follows this theme through three different expressions of popular culture in the towns of Shaba; popular song, the teaching of the Jamaa movement and popular painting. Sections: a central theme 'dispersed' it popular song religious doctrine, and popular painting - The central theme as a developing code; comparisons between popular songs, religious doctrine and popular painting. App., fig., notes, ref, résumé, table
Fabian, Johannes1985: Religious pluralism : an ethnographic
approach. In Theoretical explorations in African religion /
ed. by Wim van Binsbergen and Matthew Schoffeleers: (1985), p.
138-163. Pp. 138-163.
Abstract: Pluralism is not a coherent theory, much less a methodology for the study of diversity. Pluralism presupposes an observer's position outside and above the phenomena. Concern with "pluralism" may have the effect of reinforcing rather than weakening the hegemonic attitude of the social sciences towards religion. Therefore the author proposes to consider pluralism "from below" in such a way that the people we study are given a voice. As an illustration of the principles and desiderata of an ethnographic approach the author presents a text which contains a message from the people. This text originated as a tape recording during fieldwork on the Jamaa movement in Shaba (Zaïre). - Notes, ref., tab
Fancello, Sandra 2003: Les politiques identitaires d'une
Église africaine transnationale: the Church of Pentecost
(Ghana). Cahiers d'études africaines vol. 43, cah. 172, p.
Abstract: Cet article traite de la stratégie d'expansion missionnaire d'une Église pentecôtiste africaine : l'Église de Pentecôte, fondée au Ghana dans les années 1950 et actuellement implantée dans près de cinquante pays, aussi bien en Afrique (vingt et un pays) qu'en Europe. Née en pays ashanti, à l'initiative d'un missionnaire écossais précédemment affilié à l'Église apostolique britannique (Bradford), cette Église garde un attachement fort à son lieu d'implantation originel. Ayant tout d'abord privilégié l'usage des langues africaines, l'Église de Pentecôte a entamé depuis peu un processus d'adoption des langues nationales. Cette crise de la " vernacularisation" marque une étape cruciale dans l'évolution d'une Église "rurale" et "indigène", et s'accentue dans la rencontre avec les communautés africaines en Europe. La présente étude est centrée sur l'implantation urbaine de cette Église dans trois capitales ouest-africaines (Ouagadougou au Burkina Faso, Abidjan en Côte d'Ivoire, Accra au Ghana). Bibliogr., notes, réf., résumé en français et en anglais. [Résumé extrait de la revue, adapté]
Fardon, Richard, Wim v. Binsbergen, and Rijk v. Dijk 1999:
Modernity on a shoestring : dimensions of globalization, consumption
and development in Africa and beyond.Leiden [etc.]: EIDOS.
Abstract: The papers collected in this volume were first presented at a conference on 'Globalization, development and the making of consumers: what are collective identities for?' which was held in The Hague, The Netherlands, on 13-16 March 1997. The papers are concerned with the challenge to the development paradigm presented by its potential submersion within processes of economic globalization. The following chapters are on Africa: The accountability of commodities in a global marketplace: the cases of Bolivian coca and Tanzanian honey (Alberto Arce, Eleanor Fisher) - The Pentecostal gift: Ghanaian charismatic churches and the moral innocence of the global economy (Rijk van Dijk) - 'Progress' as discursive spectacle: but what comes after development? (David Mills on Uganda) - Christian mind and worldly matters: religion and materiality in the nineteenth-century Gold Coast (Birgit Meyer) - Mary's room: a case study on becoming a consumer in Francistown, Botswana (Wim van Binsbergen) - Second-hand clothing encounters in Zambia: global discourses, Western commodities and local histories (Karen Tranberg Hansen) - Globalization and the making of consumers: Zambian kitchen parties (Thera Rasing) - African corruption in the context of globalization (Jean-Pierre Olivier de Sardan) - Market expansion, globalized discourses and changing identity politics in Kenya (Andreas van Nahl) - The production of translocality: initiation in the sacred grove in southern Senegal (Ferdinand de Jong) - The production of 'primitiveness' and identity: Surma-tourist interactions (Jan Abbink) - Anthropology, identity politics, consumption and development in post-apartheid South Africa (P.A. McAllister) - Rural democratization in Zanzibar: the 1995 general elections (Greg Cameron)
Notes: Based on an EIDOS (European Inter-university Development Opportunities Study-group) conference held at The Hague, 13-16 March 1997
Met bibliogr., index., noten
Fogelqvist, Anders 1986: The red-dressed Zionists : symbols
of power in a Swazi Independent Church.Uppsala: [Uppsala University,
Department of Cultural Anthropology].
Abstract: A study of the Church of Jericho, a Zionist church founded in 1951 in Swaziland, during the final years of the reign of King Sobhuza II. Because of the colour of their uniform, the members (emaJerikho) are also known as red-dressed Zionists. The claim of the emaJerikho to possess mystical power provides the focus of the study, which is divided into two parts. The first is concerned with the leader and founder, Bishop Eliyasi Vilakati; the second with aspects of the church relating to its self-perception as a church possessing power. The study is based on research carried out in southern Africa between August 1977 and January 1980
Notes: Tevens proefschrift Uppsala
Met bibliogr., noten, samenvatting
Gaiya, Musa A. B. 2002: The Pentecostal revolution in
Nigeria.Copenhagen: Centre of African Studies.
Notes: Bibliogr.: p. 27-29. - Met noten
Garner, Robert C. 2000: Safe sects? : dynamic religion and
AIDS in South Africa. The journal of modern African studies : a
quarterly survey of politics, economics and related topics in
contemporary Africa vol. 38, no. 1, p. 41-69 : fig., graf.,
Abstract: This article, which is based on research conducted in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, analyses the issue of AIDS from the perspective of religious belief and its potential role in the AIDS crisis. It begins by sketching the current state of the epidemic in South Africa, and projecting its effects on demographic, economic and social indicators. It then discusses the ways in which religion may affect the spread of AIDS. The third section develops a model for analysing the power of different religious groups and introduces the various types of church in Edendale, a Zulu township near Pietermaritzburg. It distinguishes between Mainline (established or mission) churches, Pentecostalism, and Zionist-Apostolic AIC (African Independent Churches). The fourth section presents some of the findings from the field research, in particular relating to the level of extra and premarital sex (EPMS). It shows that only Pentecostal churches significantly reduce EPMS among members and that they achieve this by maintaining high levels of four crucial variables: indoctrination, religious experience, exclusion and socialization. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum
Garner, Robert C. 2000: Religion as a source of social
change in the new South Africa. Journal of religion in Africa vol.
30, no. 3, p. 310-343 : fig., graf., tab.
Abstract: In the scholarship of recent decades, religion has been accorded little power as a source of social change, either "from above" (via changes at the macro level) or "from below" (at the micro level). However, as the attention of various disciplines has been drawn to developing societies, an awareness of the potential influence of religion has grown. Based on research in Edendale, a South African township in the vincinity of Pietermaritzburg, conducted after the macro-transition to democratic government, this article explores the social and economic mechanisms at work in a variety of Christian churches. It argues that their capacity to effect social change "from below" is uneven, and that the most powerful are those which maximize four variables: indoctrination, religious experience, exclusion and socialization. These variables are often highest in Pentecostalism, and in certain types of African Independent Churches (AICs). The differential impact of church types on their members in the "new" South Africa is then illustrated with reference to financial, social and cultural behaviour. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum
Gifford, P. 1991: Christian fundamentalism and development.
Review of African political economy no. 52, p. 9-20.
Abstract: Sum.: this article discusses the characteristics of the fundamentalist form of Christianity which emerged in early 20th-century America and reemerged as a significant trend in the late 1970s. The author describes the spread of this form of Christianity to Africa in the 1980s and its implications in the present crisis in Africa. The central argument is that features which characterize fundamentalist Christianity - millennial thinking, whose most popular form today is called dispensationalism; the faith gospel; belief in evil spirits and demons as the cause of all evil; depreciation of worldly matters; total reliance on divine intervention - all or some of which are found in particular fundamentalist theology, encourage a passive acceptance of disasters and misfortune and a lack of social responsibility, leading to the absence of any commitment to development. Bibliogr
Gifford, Paul 1987: "Africa shall be saved" : an
appraisal of Reinhard Bonnke's pan-African crusade. Journal of
religion in Africa vol. 17, no. 1, p. 63-92.
Abstract: 'Africa shall be saved' is the war-cry of Reinhard Bonnke's Christ for All Nations (CfAN) crusade. In 1986 CfAN held a thirteen-day crusade in Harare, Zimbabwe, on its northward march to Malawi, Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda and beyond. In an effort systematically to establish the CfAN brand of Christianity, the author analyses the sermons delivered at the meetings of the Harare crusade under nine headings: miracles, the Bible, Christ, the Spirit, demonology, sacraments, eschatology, ecclesiology, and morality. The analysis puts the CfAN movement squarely in the Pentecostal camp. Notes, ref
Gifford, Paul 1992: New dimensions in African
Christianity.Nairobi: All Africa Conference of Churches.
Abstract: During the 1980s, African Christianity has witnessed the proliferation, not only in major cities like Nairobi, Kinshasa or Lagos, but also in rural areas, of new religious groups, churches and ministries, nearly all of them pentecostal. This form of Christianity is promoted through literature, workshops, bible colleges, revivals and crusades. In an effort to understand the function of the new religious movements the All Africa Conference of Churches started a study project of which this book is, in part, a result. Contributions: Pentecostalism in southern Nigeria: an overview (Ruth Marshall); Bethel and Transcea, Liberia's fastest-growing churches: a comparison (Paul Gifford); Young born-again preachers in post-independence Malawi: the significance of an extraneous identity (Richard van Dijk); The proliferation and persistence of new religious groups in the city of Kinshasa: some case studies (René de Haes); Recent developments in Mozambican Christianity (Helen Van Koevering); Deeper Life Bible Church of Nigeria (Matthews A. Ojo); Reinhard Bonnke's mission to Africa, and his 1991 Nairobi crusade (Paul Gifford); The politicisation of fundamentalism in Nigeria (Matthew Hassan Kukah). A select bibliography is also provided
Notes: Bibliogr.: p. 207-213. - Met noten
Gifford, Paul 1994: Ghana's charismatic churches. Journal
of religion in Africa vol. 24, fasc. 3, p. 241-265.
Abstract: Charismatic churches are an increasingly important sector of Ghanaian Christianity. This paper examines some charismatic churches in Ghana, from different areas of the country, in an attempt to explain how they function, what they teach, how they are linked, and what role they play in public life. Attention is paid to Christian Action Faith Ministries (Accra), founded by Nicholas Duncan Williams in 1979; International Central Gospel Church (Accra), founded by Mensa Otabil in 1984; Broken Yoke Foundation (Bolgatanga), founded in 1987 by Joseph Eastwood Anaba with six others; World Miracle Bible Church (Tamale), founded in 1987 by Charles Agyin Asare; and Christian Hope Ministry (Kumasi), founded in 1984. Features common to all these churches are that the young attending church are beautifully dressed, groomed and made up; demonology is a key category; media consciousness is important; the churches are closely tied to the personality of their founder; their relationship to the established churches is still evolving; and much effort is expended by each church to establish its own Bible school. Finally, attention is paid to the public or political role of these churches. Notes, ref
Gifford, Paul 1994: Some recent developments in African
Christianity. African affairs : the journal of the Royal African
Society vol. 93, no. 373, p. 513-534.
Abstract: In the late 1980s Africa experienced the beginning of a second liberation, as the peoples of Africa tried to throw off the political systems that had come to serve them so badly. One of the common features of this struggle was the significant role played by the churches. The involvement of the Christian churches in Africa's political changes came as a surprise to many. It was commonly thought that Christianity in Africa would become ever less significant, because it was associated so closely with colonialism. This prediction has proved completely false. This article sketches developments of African Christianity in the 1980s, which have not been well documented. It pays attention to the mushrooming of new churches, the missionary explosion, the link between many of these missionaries and the charismatic/fundamentalist Christianity of the southern states of America, the growing weakness of the mainline churches, the formidable presence in Africa of the Catholic Church, divisions within African Christianity, the attitude of the mainline churches and the new evangelical and Pentecostal churches towards Islam, and the sociopolitical role of the churches, often the greatest single element of civil society. Notes, ref
Gifford, Paul 1998: African Christianity : its public
Abstract: This book presents a survey of Christianity's varied manifestations in the Africa of the 1990s. In an introductory chapter, the author situates Africa's churches in their wider context, drawing particular attention to the endemic political and economic weakness of the African State, and relating the dynamics within African State and society to the dynamics of African Christianity. Focusing on the public role of Christianity, the author then presents four in-depth case studies: Ghana, Uganda, Zambia and Cameroon. In different permutations, they cover all the principal strains of Christianity: Roman Catholic, Anglican, mainline Protestant, Evangelical, Pentecostal and African Independent. What stands out in these case studies is the importance of the churches' external links. Through these links the churches have become a major source of development assistance, employment and opportunity in Africa
Notes: Met lit. opg. en index
Gifford, Paul 2004: Ghana's new Christianity :
Pentecostalism in a globalising African economy.London: Hurst &
Notes: Bibliogr.: p.201-211. - Met index, noten
Glazier, Stephen D. 2001: Encyclopedia of African and
African-American religions.New York, NY [etc.]: Routledge.
Notes: A Berkshire reference work
Met lit. opg. en index
Gunner, E.1990: The dead child returned to life : the
sermon as oral narrative in Isaiah Shembe's Nazareth Baptist Church.
In D'un conte ... à l'autre : la variabilité
dans la littérature orale = From one tale ... to the other :
variability in oral literature / éd. par Veronika
Görög-Karady. - Paris : Éditions du CNRS: (1990), p.
191-201. Pp. 191-201.
Abstract: Abr. sum.: In the case of the predominantly Zulu Nazareth Baptist Church, founded by the prophet Isaiah Shembe in 1911, the sermon holds a key place in the Church's expression of identity as an Independent Zionist Church in South Africa. 'The Dead Child Returned to Life' was recorded as a sermon given by Isaiah Shembe in 1929 and copied down by a church member; a second version was recorded on tape in 1985 and a variant in 1987. The paper considers narrative qualities of the sermon and the attitudes to secular and spiritual power embedded in it. Thus the White, seemingly dominant, secular power has limited authority which Shembe's powers as a miraculous healer can transcend. The Church itself, although largely representing the marginalized poor, can through a sermon such as 'The Dead Child', lay claim to an area of power beyond secular authority and control. The paper also explores the tension between the role of the mother-figure in the sermon and that of the prophet himself - the earlier sermon emphasizes the role of the mother, the latter that of the prophet. This ambiguity is linked, perhaps, to a deeper tension relating to the contradictions in the Church between the overtly submissive role of women and their more powerful but largely unacknowledged influence in spiritual matters. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum. also in French (p. 581-582). Debate p. 202-203
Haar, Gerrie t. 1994: Standing up for Jesus : a survey of
new developments in Christianity in Ghana. Exchange : bulletin de
littérature des églises du Tiers Monde vol. 23, no. 3,
Abstract: This paper, based on research conducted in Ghana in September 1994, presents a survey of the current state of Christianity in Ghana and traces the outlines of the evolution of its main components. Where in the past Christianity was largely monopolized by the former mission churches, today there are churches of various types, old and new. The older ones include traditional 'mainline' churches such as the Roman Catholics, the Anglicans, the Methodists and the Presbyterians. The pentecostal churches, which distinguish themselves from the orthodox churches by the prominent role they attribute to the Holy Spirit, can be divided into 'old' and 'new' pentecostal churches. The latter are also often referred to as 'charismatic' churches or as 'gospel' or 'evangelical' churches. Another commonly used category is that of the 'spiritual' churches, also often referred to as 'independent', 'African independent' or simply 'African' churches. The paper pays attention to the history, theology and religious practices of all these churches, as well as their organization in church councils and the relationships between them. Finally, the future of Christianity in Ghana is discussed. Bibliogr
Haar, Gerrie t. 1995: Strangers in the promised land :
African Christians in Europe. Exchange : bulletin de littérature
des églises du Tiers Monde vol. 24, no. 1, p. 1-33.
Abstract: In recent years the Church in many European countries has been confronted with the emergence of congregations founded and led by African immigrants. One such country is the Netherlands, where a range of African-led churches, mostly founded by Ghanaians, has sprung up, particularly in the main cities. These churches fulfil an important role in the lives of many African migrants. They can best be described as basic communities where, on the basis of faith, people learn to develop their own resources. This paper examines these African-led churches in Europe, particularly in the Netherlands. In Amsterdam, there may be over 40 different congregations. After a brief history of African migration to Europe, it discusses background and history of a few selected African-led churches in the Netherlands, using data gathered in Ghana in 1994, and in the Netherlands since mid-1992. Attention is paid to the Resurrection Power and Living Bread Ministries, the True Teachings of Christ's Temple, the Church of Pentecost, and the Assemblies of God. Next, the responses of the Roman Catholic Church and the Protestant Churches are discussed. An examination of race relations in the Dutch churches shows that, although there are exceptions to the rule, there is a general reluctance in both church and other theological circles to enter into meaningful contact with African Christians. Bibliogr
Haar, Gerrie t. 1998: Halfway to paradise : African
Christians in Europe.Cardiff: Cardiff Academic Press.
Notes: Met bibliogr. en index
Haar, Gerrie t.1998: The African diaspora in the
Netherlands. In New trends and developments in African
religions / ed. by Peter B. Clarke. - Westport, CT [etc.] : Greenwood
Press: (1998), p. 245-262. Pp. 245-262.
Abstract: This chapter analyses the situation of African Christians in the Bijlmer, a district of Amsterdam, the capital city of the Netherlands, making use of A. van Gennep's notion of rites of passage and V. Turner's idea of ritual as process, in particular the latter's idea of communitas and liminality. While both elements are present in all the African churches in the area, the author pays special attention to the True Teachings of Christ's Temple, the largest and oldest of the African-led churches in the district. She describes some examples of ritual behaviour - purification rituals, the dedication ceremony, the foot-washing ritual - and shows that the church provides a safe haven and a community for the marginalized, who are mainly of Ghanaian descent. In order to avoid being further marginalized, members of this and other churches often will not use the label 'African' when referring to their churches. Their beliefs and the way they give expression to them are formed by the specific (European) conditions of their life, not by the circumstances of either 'traditional' or modern Africa. Bibliogr., notes
Haar, Gerrie t. 2000: World religions and community
religions: where does Africa fit in?Copenhagen: University of
Copenhagen, Centre of African Studies.
Notes: Presented during an Africa seminar at the Centre of African Studies, University of Copenhagen, on the 21st of September 1999
Hackett, Rosalind I. J. 1987: New religious movements in
Nigeria.Lewiston, N.Y., [etc.]: The Edwin Mellen Press.
Abstract: Collection of essays on new religious movements in Nigeria, in particular the diversification and changes that have occurred since the Civil War (1967-1970). Contents: Introduction: variations on a theme, by R.I.J. Hackett - 1. The emergence of the Igbe cult in Isokoland, by E. Samsom Akama - 2. The Celestial Church of Christ in Ondo: a phenomenological perspective, by J. Kehinde Olupona - 3. Continuities and adaptations in the Aladura movement: the example of prophet Wobo and his clientele in South-Eastern Nigeria, by G.I.S. Amadi - 4. The Maitatsine movement in Northern Nigeria in historical and current perspective, by P. Clarke - 5. Evangelist Adam Igbudu and his mass movement in Nigeria: a historical survey, by E. Samsom Akama - 6. The God's Kingdom Society in Nigeria, by D.I. Ilega - 7. Thirty years of growth and change in a West African Independent Church: a sociological perspective, by R.I.J. Hackett - 8. Schism and religious independency in Nigeria: the case of the Brotherhood of the Cross and Star, by Essien A. Offiong - 9. Women as leaders and participants in the spiritual churches, by R.I.J. Hackett - 10. Public response to new religious movements in contemporary Nigeria, by Friday M. Mbon - 11. Conclusion: religious innovation and self-determination: the continuing quest, by R.I.J. Hackett
Notes: Met noten
Hackett, Rosalind I. J. 1998: Charismatic/Pentecostal
appropriation of media technologies in Nigeria and Ghana. Journal of
religion in Africa vol. 28, no. 3, p. 258-277.
Abstract: This essay constitutes a preliminary investigation of the topic, concentrating on how Charismatic and Pentecostal movements in both Nigeria and Ghana have taken over modern media to pass on their messages. Media studies on Africa have paid little or no attention to religion, and religious scholars tend to ignore popular culture, which means that this topic has been barely touched upon. This is a serious omission as the new media provide a critical sphere at the intersection of public and private. This gives rise to new types of social interaction and religious praxis and experience. The author gives an elucidation of the nomenclature and institutional boundaries of what she means by both Charismatic and Pentecostal, as these terms tend to have different connotations in the two countries she examines. She feels that the resurgence of the charismatic movements and their wholehearted adoption of mass media should be seen within the framework of globalization, especially if this is taken to mean not just the growth of transnational developments but rather a dialectic between homogenizing and heterogenizing forces. Not surprisingly the tactics of the charismatics are perceived as threatening by other religious organizations and by the govennment. In some of the predominantly Muslim states of northern Nigeria there have been attempts to curtail their activities. To a certain extent their influence can be traced in the religious riots in Nigeria in 1987 and those in Ghana in 1996. Ann., bibliogr
Hackett, Rosalind I. J.1999: Radical Christian revivalism
in Nigeria and Ghana : recent patterns of intolerance and conflict.
In ln: Proselytization and communal self-determination in
Africa: (cop. 1999), p. 246-267. Pp. 246-267.
Abstract: Both Nigeria and Ghana have experienced a resurgence of religious activity in recent years, attributable in large part to the growth in number and popularity of the Christian charismatic and Pentecostal movements, which have become a major force over the last three decades. These newer Christian charismatic movements are dynamic and have multimedia organizations. They constitute highly motivated and mobilizing communities, in large part because their membership is dominated by the youth and urban elites. They penetrate areas beyond the parameters of the conventional "church". Their strong evangelistic outreach is fuelled by the power of the Spirit and revival and a conversionist ideology and facilitated by the latest in church growth techniques. The proselytizing tactics of these "new generation" or "newbreed" churches are perceived as increasingly militant and provocative by other religious organizations and governments alike, and have contributed in a significant way to a climate of tension and suspicion. In order to achieve more harmonious interreligious relations, the role of the media, educational institutions, and the government in promoting religious tolerance could be particularly instrumental. Bibliogr., notes, ref
Hanekom, Christof 1975: Krisis en kultus :
geloofsopvattinge en seremonies binne 'n Swart kerk.Kaapstad [etc.]:
Abstract: In hierdie publikasie deur 'n volkekundige word 'n uiteensetting gegee van die geestelike en ideologiese klimaat in die Zion Christian Church van Lekhanyane, die grootste onafhanklike Bantoekerk in Suider-Afrika
Hastings, Adrian 2000: African Christian studies, 1967-1999
: reflections of an editor. Journal of religion in Africa vol. 30,
no. 1, p. 30-44.
Abstract: The author, editor emeritus of the 'Journal of Religion in Africa', presents a bibliographical essay on African Christian studies covering the period 1967-1999. He discusses books published in this period, as well as articles which appeared in the 'Journal', and he sketches trends in African Christian studies. Between the mid-1960s and mid-1970s research in African Christian studies focused on Independent Churches and new religious movements. During the 1980s, this topic began to lose its attraction, and was supplemented or replaced by a renewed concern for the mission-founded churches, both their past history and their present experience. The scholarship of the 1990s has been enriched by a multitude of major themes - Church-State relations, Pentecostalism, Christian-Islamic relations, missionary history and the AIC (African Independent Churches) diaspora
Henry, Christine 1998: Le discours de la conversion.
Journal des africanistes t. 68, fasc. 1/2, p. 155-172.
Abstract: Cet article analyse six récits de conversion au Christianisme céleste recueillis dans une ville dans le département du Zou (Moyen Bénin). Les locuteurs retenus sont, pour les quatres hommes des membres du comité paroissial, et pour les deux femmes des visionnaires presque toujours présentes sur la paroisse, c'est-à-dire six personnes qui étaient d'une part fortement investies dans leurs pratiques religieuses et d'autre part, en tant que dirigeants ou visionnaires expertes, parlaient d'un lieu autorisé. L'analyse montre qu'au delà de la diversité des péripéties biographiques relatées, le locuteur, pourtant banalement introduit chez les Chrétiens célestes par un proche (parent ou ami), se présente comme le héros miraculé d'un combat contre les forces du mal. Des événements extraordinaires jalonnent sa quête dont le récit reprend les éléments canonique de la Bible ou de l'histoire du prophète fondateur. L'histoire personnelle ainsi "mise en intrigue" se prête à une narration publique et fonde un prosélytisme du témoignage. Bibliogr., notes, rés. en français et en anglais
Hexham, Irving, G. C. Oosthuizen, and Hans J. Becken 1998:
Early regional traditions of the Acts of the Nazarites.Lewiston, NY
[etc.]: Edwin Mellen.
Hexham, Irving, G. C. Oosthuizen, and Hans J. Becken 2002 The continuing story of the sun and the moon : oral testimony and the sacred history of the ama-Nazarites under the leadership of bishops Johannes Galilee Shembe and Amos Shembe.Lewiston, NY [etc.]: Edwin Mellen.
Horton, R. 1971 African conversion. Africa vol. 41, no. 2, p. 85-108.
Abstract: The Aladura or 'prayer' churches in Nigeria, similar to the usually labelled 'Zionist' churches, are described by John D.Y. Peel in his book 'Aladura: a Religious Movement among the Yoruba' (London, 1968). This review article in its first section gives an extended summary of 'Aladura'. In the second section a critical appraisal of the book is attempted in which special attention is paid to the more general questions that Peel raises and in some cases answers. The third section concentrates on a question to which Peel and others have so far provided only partial answers - the question of the causes of conversion from 'traditional' to 'world' religions. Sketched briefly is an interpretation which seems to resolve some of the problems left outstanding by current approaches. Ref., notes
Ibrahim, Jibrin 1989: The politics of religion in Nigeria :
the politics of the 1987 crisis in Kaduna State.[The Hague: Institute
of Social Studies].
Abstract: The Muslim/Christian divide penetrates virtually all the 19 States in Nigeria to a greater or lesser extent. Nevertheless, while intrareligious squabbles and turbulences have been fairly common, direct conflict between Christians and Muslims has been rare. In this paper the author describes the 1987 religious crisis in Kaduna State. He describes the causes of the crisis, the role of the media, Government reaction, and the political parameters of the crisis. His conclusion is that the March 1987 disturbances in Kaduna State are manifestations of a relatively new but serious malaise in Nigerian politics. The religious idiom is rapidly becoming politicized in a confrontation in which the stake is the Nigerian State itself. There are two aspects to the problem. The first aspect relates to a significant rise in religious fundamentalism. The Islamic dimension involves a concerted struggle against syncretic practices as well as against the innovations of the Darika brotherhoods. The Christian dimension involves a movement away from the materialist ways of the established churches and an attempt to reconstruct a new 'born again' church. The images produced by religious fundamentalists are being incorporated in the wider political games of fractions of the Nigerian bourgeoisie. This constitutes the second aspect of the problem
Jacquier Dubourdieu, Lucile 2002: De la guérison des
corps à la guérison de la nation : réveil et
mouvements évangéliques à l'assaut de l'espace
public. Politique africaine no. 86, p. 70-85.
Abstract: Cet article s'interroge sur le sens de la promotion des mouvements du Réveil dans l'espace public, à l'occasion des deux cérémonies d'investiture de Marc Ravalomanana à Madagascar (février et mai 2002). Une relation à la fois étroite et conflictuelle s'était établie entre le président Ratisraka et les Églises depuis son arrivée au pouvoir. Habile à multiplier les rivalités individuelles pour humilier ses adversaires et conserver son pouvoir, Ratsiraka incarne le "diviseur", la figure biblique du démon. Par contraste, Marc Ravalomanana, homme d'Église, homme d'affaires heureux, entrepreneur audacieux, appara´´t comme le chevalier blanc de la "vérité" et la "sainteté" et le modèle de l'homme tel que Dieu le veut prêché par les différentes chapelles évangéliques, dans une scène archétype mettant en scène l'image de la lutte de l'ange et du démon et qui résulte d'un long travail de l'espace public par la logique évangélique. Le défi des mouvements de Réveil a aujourd'hui une force d'initiative urbaine et complique le jeu des rivalités intra-ecclésiales. Ces mouvements ont longtemps été tenus pour des acteurs mineurs parce que ruraux. Leurs modes variés de défi du pouvoir se traduisent par la levée du contrôle étatique sur les rituels ancestraux et le patronage de groupes parareligieux. L'hypothèse de cet article est, qu'à défaut du libre jeu institutionnel, la légitimation du jeu électoral nécessite, parallèlement au soutien des Églises historiques, l'appui de formes populaires du christianisme spécialisées dans la lutte contre la sorcellerie et les forces démoniaques, censées constituer le fondement du pouvoir du précédent régime. L'antagonisme entre les Églises historiques et le président Ratsiraka est traité sur le mode exorciste de la lutte de l'ange et du démon. Cette vision nourrit un imaginaire du politique qui fait ainsi l'économie d'une réflexion sur les fondements structurels de la corruption. Les nouvelles Églises de la Winner's Chapel et l'Église pentecôtiste EURD originaire du Brésil sont analysées dans leur lien à l'imaginaire politique des événements à Madagascar. Notes, réf., rés. en français et en anglais (p. 210)
Kamphausen, Erhard 1998: Gesellschaftliche Umbruchprozesse
und neue religiöse Bewegungen im afrikanischen Christentum.
Afrika Jahrbuch ...: Politik, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft in Afrika
südlich der Sahara p. 63-71.
Abstract: In den 1980er Jahren breiteten sich die Pfingstkirchen in Afrika explosionsartig aus. Nach einer kurzen Beschreibung der religiösen Bewegungen im afrikanischen Christentum stellt dieser Beitrag die theologischen und religionswissenschaftlichen Konzepte vor, die der neo-pentekostalen Bewegung in Afrika so große Attraktivität verleihen. Grundüberzeugung in den neuen Pfingstbewegungen ist, daß jeder "wahre" Christ ("true believer"), sofern er eine echte "Wiedergeburt" erfahren hat, an dem Sieg Christi über Sünde, Krankheit und Armut partizipieren soll. Theologisch gesehen wird Gesundheit, Ansehen, Macht und Reichtum zur zentralen Aussage der Verkündigung. Besonders populär sind zur Zeit theologische Vorstellungen, die sich mit der Existenz "geistiger Territorialmächte" und deren Bekämpfung befassen. Anhänger dieser Lehre gehen davon aus, daß der Teufel hochrangige böse Geister mit der Herrschaft über Nationen, Regionen, Städte, Wohngebiete und Volksgruppen betraut hat, um zu verhindern, daß der wahre Gott verehrt wird. Aufgabe des Gläubigen ist es, als christlicher Streiter und "Gottes Waffenträger" präzise zu bestimmen, wo diese geistlichen Machtzentren zu lokalisieren sind. Exorzismus ist ein weiteres Phänomen in den Pfingstkirchen. Die Entwicklung und der Fortschritt im geistlichen Leben eines Christen kann durch Dämonen behindert werden. In der Regel bedarf es eines von Gott mit einem Charisma ausgestatteten Menschen, der die Gabe hat festzustellen, um welchen Geist es sich handelt, und welcher Methoden es bedarf, um den Dämon auszutreiben. Die Anhänger des Neo-Pentekostalismus sind darüber hinaus überzeugt, daß die Welt sich in ihrer Endphase befindet und daß die Wiederkunft Christi unmittelbar bevorsteht. Bibliogr
Kastfelt, Niels 2003: Scriptural politics : the Bible and
the Koran as political models in the Middle East and Africa.London:
Abstract: This collective volume examines how the Koran and the Bible are interpreted and acted upon by political movements in the Arab world and Africa. It is commonly held that the Koran has more specific rules for the organization of society than does the Bible. The contributors contend that this assumption should be reassessed, given the way that the Bible is being interpreted in contemporary African Christianity. They go on to explain how the different political traditions of Africa and the Arab world shape reactions to the Koran and the Bible. The book also offers a comparison of Islamic and Christian radicalism in the 1990s. Islamist and radical Christian groups of a charismatic-pentecostal orientation have been on the rise in Africa and the Arab world in the 1990s, and they show remarkable similarities. Contributions by Rijk van Dijk (on Ghana), Quentin Gausset (on northern Cameroon), Paul Gifford, Holger Bernt Hansen, Niels Kastfelt (on Nigeria), Ahmad S. Moussalli, Monte Palmer (on Zambia and Egypt), M.A. Mohamed Salih (on South Sudan), Jørgen Bæk Simonsen, Endre Stiansen, and Michael Twaddle (on Uganda). The book has its origins in a conference held in December 1998 in Tune Landboskole, Denmark. [ASC Leiden abstract]
Notes: Met index, noten
Kessel, I. v. 2002: Merchants, missionaries & migrants
: 300 years of Dutch-Ghanaian relations.Amsterdam: KIT
Abstract: Historische artikelen
The contributions to this volume commemorating three hundred years of diplomatic relations between Ghana and the Netherlands are grouped under three headings - merchants and merchandise, missionaries, and voluntary and involuntary migrants - reflecting the three most important areas of contact between Dutch and Ghanaians over the centuries. The first part opens with a paper on a mission carried out in 1701-1702 by David van Nyendael, envoy of the Dutch West India Company (WIC), to Kumasi, which forms the starting point for the tercentenary celebrations. It also includes papers on the slave trade, the cocoa trade, and the role of Dutch 'schnapps' in Ghanaian ritual. The contributions on missionary activity deal with the tragic life of Jacobus Capitein (1717-1747), the first black minister stationed in Elmina, and the significance of Pentecostal churches for Ghanaians in the present-day Netherlands. The contributions on migration include stories of individual people who migrated back and forth between the Netherlands and Ghana, such as two Euro-African women from Elmina, as well as chapters on the Ghanaian diaspora, covering Suriname, Indonesia and the Netherlands. The contributions are by Ineke van Kessel, Michel R. Doortmont, Akosua Perbi, Henk den Heijer, Emmanuel Akyeampong, Victor K. Nyanteng, Henri van der Zee, David N.A. Kpobi, Rijk van Dijk, Natalie Everts, Jean Jacques Vrij, André R.M. Pakosie, Endri Kusruri and Daniel Kojo Arhinful
Notes: Published on the occasion of the tercentenary of Dutch-Ghanaian diplomatic relations. It is the outcome of the conference "Past and Present of Dutch Ghanaian Relations", organized by the African Studies Centre (Leiden), which was held in The Hague on 7 November 2001.
A joint initiative of KIT Publishers and African Studies Centre
Kessel, Ineke v., Nina Tellegen, and Erik v. d. Bergh 2000:
Afrikanen in Nederland.Amsterdam [etc.]: Koninklijk Instituut voor de
Abstract: Bundel opstellen over Afrikaanse bevolkingsgroepen ten zuiden van de Sahara en van de Kaapverdische eilanden
In Nederland wonen meer dan honderdduizend Afrikanen uit de landen bezuiden de Sahara. Doorgaans komen zij in het nieuws als beleidsobject. In deze bundel wordt een gevarieerd beeld geschetst van de grootste Afrikaanse gemeenschappen in Nederland. De basis voor de hoofdstukken wordt gevormd door voordrachten, gehouden tijdens de viering van het 50-jarig jubileum van het Afrika-Studiecentrum (Leiden). De hoofdstukken volgen min of meer de volgorde van de komst naar Nederland en zijn opgebouwd rond drie centrale thema's: migratiemotieven, organisatiepatronen binnen de gemeenschappen in Nederland en de contacten met het land van herkomst. Achtereenvolgens worden behandeld Kaapverdianen (Henny Strooij), Zuid-Afrikanen (Erik van den Bergh), Ethiopiërs (Emebet Dejene), Eritreërs (Habtom Yohannes), Ghanezen (Kwame Nimako), Somaliërs (Abdullah Mohamoud), en Kongolezen (Mindanda Mohogu). Hierna volgen hoofdstukken over Afrikanen op de Nederlandse arbeidsmarkt (Nina Tellegen), Afrikaanse ondernemers en producten in Nederland (Tjalling Dijkstra) en de Ghanese pinksterkerken in Den Haag (Rijk van Dijk). Algemene informatie over Afrikanen in Nederland is opgenomen in het inleidende hoofdstuk (Gerrie ter Haar)
Notes: Samengesteld naar aanleiding van de themadag "Afrikaanse gemeenschappen in Nederland", gehouden op 1 december 1998 ter gelegenheid van het 50-jarig bestaan van het Afrika-Studiecentrum
Bibliogr.: p. 216-223. - Met noten
Kiernan, J. P. 1975: Old wine in new wineskins. African
Studies vol. 34, no. 3, p. 193-201.
Abstract: A critical appreciation of Sundkler's leadership types in the African Independent Churches in the light of further research. The author sums up his findings in the following propositions; 1. Leadership is either of the consituting type or the allocating type; 2. These types do not necessarily belong to separate forms of organization; 3. The Zionist form of organization incorporates both types as interacting complementary roles; 4. Both roles can be satisfactorily filled by the same individual. Bibl., notes
Kiernan, J. P. 1976: The work of Zion : an analysis of an
African Zionist ritual. Africa vol. 46, no. 4, p. 340-356.
Abstract: African Zionist ritual is a healing rite, but it makes demands on the patience of the participants. The author is particularly interested in the following paradox: despite an absence of overall control there are visible signs that control is somehow being exercised. Sections: the structure of the meeting - phase of constitution - statement of purpose - division of functions - the expression of powers. Conclusion: there is not a simple progression from disorder to order; rather it is the working out of a complex dialectic between the two. Notes, ref., résumé en français
Kiernan, J. P. 1985: The social stuff of revelation :
pattern and purpose in Zionist dreams and visions. Africa -
Manchester vol. 55, no. 3, p. 304-318.
Abstract: In applying a sociological approach to the examination of recounted dreams in urban Zulu Zionist churches in South Africa, the author's purpose is twofold: to consider further implications of the purposive use of dream narrative, and, more importantly, to focus on content and its declared source, independently of purpose, and to relate it directly to social organization. Drawing upon his fieldwork among Zulu Zionists, the author argues that the contents of recounted dreams and visions combine to reveal aspects of Zionist organization and that recounted dreams and visions are tactically deployed in different ways. - Graph., notes, ref., sum. in French, tab
Kiernan, J. P. 1990: The canticles of Zion: song as word
and action in Zulu Zionist discourse. Journal of religion in Africa
vol. 20, fasc. 2, p. 188-204 : fig., tab.
Abstract: This paper analyses the themes of Zulu Zionist hymns and the usages to which hymns are put. The author made an inventory of 117 different hymns he heard and noted in the course of attending the services of 22 Zionist congregations in KwaMashu, Durban (South Africa), over a period of two years. He identifies seven dominant themes (deliverance, renewal, home, constitution, adversity, sin and elitism) and links these to the major concerns which prevail among Zionists in general, and to the particular circumstances in which they are given voice. Following an examination of the musical meaning of these hymns, an analysis of the incidence of hymns in actual services reveals four different uses to which hymns are put: 1) hymns are employed to provide a frame for the meeting; 2) hymns are used to introduce speakers in preaching and in witnessing; 3) hymns are used to force openings in parts of the service where no openings already exist; 4) hymns are sung during healing rites. The author outlines which hymns are introduced at which structural point of a meeting and by which category of person, together with the circumstances surrounding each musical performance. As to a possible correspondence between the theme of a hymn and the usage to which it is put, the author concludes that there is some overlap, but not much. Bibliogr., notes
Kiernan, J. P. 1991: Wear 'n' tear and repair: the colour
coding of mystical mending in Zulu Zionist Churches. Africa : journal
of the International African Institute vol. 61, no. 1, p. 26-39 :
Abstract: Sum.: One of the most conspicuous aspects of religious experience in Zulu Zionist Churches in South Africa is the bright colours that are worn and otherwise employed. This highly visible feature has attracted only passing attention from those who have studied these churches; no serious effort has been made to uncover the ritual significance of their colour symbolism. Against the background of anthropological studies of the therapeutic deployment of colour symbols in Africa and in the light of the author's own research among Zulu Zionists, particularly in the Durban area, this article sets out to show that the colours - white and blue-green - selected by Zionists from among those of salience to Africans express how they situate themselves within their social universe and plot the process of their response to it in ritual healing. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum. also in French
Kiernan, J. P. 1992: The herder and the rustler :
deciphering the affinity between Zulu diviner and Zionist prophet.
African studies : a quarterly journal devoted to the study of African
administration, cultures and languages vol. 51, no. 2, p.
Abstract: Are the Zulu diviner and the Zionist prophet birds of a feather or are they as different as chalk and cheese? Since B.G.M. Sundkler (1961) first examined and pronounced on this question, there has been a noticeable tendency on the part of modern scholars to stress a remarkable congruity between prophet and diviner. It is argued that the prophet is the mirror image of the diviner ('isangoma'). The present author wants to reopen this question, because Zionists themselves have consistently denied that they have anything in common with diviners. Arguing that the question may have been too narrowly expressed in purely religious parameters, the author casts it in a fuller context, both to appreciate its broader implications and to seek a more informed answer. He draws mainly on his own first-hand experience of Zionism, which is confined to a limited number of self-consciously Christian groups in the urban environment of KwaMashu (KwaZulu, South Africa). He concludes that although it cannot be denied that there are obvious similarities in the conduct of diviners and Zionist prophets, a significant divergence appears when the social context is taken into account: like a herder, the diviner is committed to maintaining the status quo of a social system, while the Zionist prophet, like a benign rustler, draws into an alternative novel dispensation the discontented or abandoned of a social system that no longer caters adequately for their needs. Bibliogr
Kiernan, James 1978: Saltwater and ashes : instruments of
curing among some Zulu Zionist. Journal of religion in Africa vol. 9,
no. 1, p. 27-32.
Abstract: The mainstay of Zionist healing power is their control of Umoya (Spirit) which is identified with the Holy Spirit of Christian belief. Umoya stands for a whole 'technology' of mystical powers and represents an array of capacities, skills and instruments without which the work of Zion could not be accomplished. It is necessary to distinguish powers which inhere permanently in persons as opposed to a temporary infusion designed to meet the demands of particular circumstances (specifics). This article is limited to a treatment of 'specifics' only and to the media or agencies through which specific blessings are transmitted, namely water, ashes, salt. Notes
Kiernan, Jim 1996: The Zionist congregation over time :
continuity and change in social composition and structure. African
studies : a quarterly journal devoted to the study of African
administration, cultures and languages vol. 55, no. 2, p.
Abstract: This article analyses two sets of field data, gathered in 1970 among 22 Zionist congregations in the Durban township of KwaMashu, Natal, South Africa, and in 1992 among 14 of these congregations. The purpose of the exercise is to establish the resilience or fragility over time of the congregation as an effective social unit when subjected to the strains of denominational splitting, the loss or removal of congregational leadership and the task of renewing an ageing membership. With very few exceptions, it was found that the congregational unit was remarkably durable over time and unshaken by denominational upheavals, that the loss of membership was insignificant compared with steady gains in most instances, and that the stability of congregational leadership exercised a significant influence upon the cohesion and growth of the small-scale social unit. Notes, ref., sum
Kirsch, Thomas G. 1998: Lieder der Macht : religiöse
Autorität und Performance in einer afrikanisch-christlichen
Kirche Zambias.Münster: Lit Verlag.
Notes: Bibliogr.. p. 136-149. - Met noten
Kirsch, Thomas G. 2002: Performance and the negotiation of
charismatic authority in an African indigenous church in Zambia.
Paideuma : Mitteilungen zur Kulturkunde Bd. 48, S. 57-76.
Abstract: This case study of an indigenous prophet-healing church among the Gwembe Tonga in Zambia describes a particular form of charismatic authority. It shows how charisma is socially negotiated, constructed and maintained in the course of the rituals of this church by means of an interactional form of control over the performance. Entitlement to religious leadership within the St. Moses God's Holy Spirit Church is immediately linked to acknowledgement as a medium of the Holy Spirit. But as the Holy Spirit is considered to be independent in selecting his worldly manifestations, there exist no official procedures for the appointment of religious leaders. For the participants in religious practice, it is not possible to find definitively binding criteria to distinguish a medium of the Holy Spirit from a patient possessed by demons. Without discussion, diverging interpretations from phenomenological appearances and varying social and moral expectations are brought into a religious practice that is mainly directed at a holistic empowerment mediated by the spiritual powers of the community's religious leaders. The negotiation over who is collectively entitled to religious authority unfolds processually through the singing of communal hymns. As songs are held to invoke the presence of the Holy Spirit, the communal singing of hymns is a prerequisite for almost any religious activity of the congregation. Since the mediumistic activities of the church leaders are dependent on the congregation's commitment to singing hymns, their status is in effect negotiated in a dialogical call-and-response form of singing that allows everyone to come to a judgement by either participating in singing or simply refusing to participate. A general refusal therefore ends mediumistic activities so that the church leader's status is ultimately reduced to that of a patient. Bibliogr., notes, ref
Kitshoff, M. C. 1990: African Independent Churches : a
mighty movement in a changing South Africa. South Africa
international : quarterly vol. 21, no. 3, p. 155-164.
Abstract: The African Independent Churches (AICs) proliferated in many countries on the African continent but nowhere to the extent that they have in southern Africa. By 1980, the AICs in South Africa had grown to include 3,270 denominations with a total membership of nearly six million. This means that about 28 percent of the black population belonged to the AICs, while the "big five" historical churches claimed 37 percent. The independent churches followed in the wake of the first independent church, the Thembu Church, founded in 1884 in Transkei. Two broad types can be distinguished, namely the Ethiopian and the Spirit-type churches. The Ethiopian churches are viewed as emphasizing ecclesiastical and political freedom in the African context. The Spirit-type (Zionist and Apostolic) churches are seen as stressing the freedom of the Spirit in the same context. They practise healing as an integral part of their church activities. All AICs emphasize the fortification of their members against traditional evil forces and are involved in the economic activities of mutual aid societies. By recognizing a work ethic as a prerequisite for development, and, therefore, promoting a simple life-style, free of alcohol and tobacco, and a philosophy of sharing, the AICs constitute a liberation movement endeavouring to free their people from poverty and subservience. Bibliogr
Kitshoff, M. C. 1996: African independent churches today :
kaleidoscope of Afro-Christianity.Lewiston, N.Y. [etc.]: Edwin Mellen
Abstract: This collective volume, published in honour of Professor G.C. Oosthuizen, leading South African researcher in the field of religion, provides a description of the many aspects of Afro-Christianity as expressed in the African Independent/Indigenous Churches (AIC). Part 1, on the history of Afro-Christianity, includes a contribution on sources for writing African indigenous church history (H.L. Pretorius) and case studies of AIC in Malawi (C.M. Pauw), the Zion Christian Church and the Nazareth Church of Botswana (D.R. Boschman), the Harrist Church in West Africa (D.A. Shank), the Zulu Congregational Church in South Africa (A.W.Z. Kuzwayo) and the Moshoeshoe Berean Bible Readers Church in Lesotho (R.J.R. van der Spuy). Part 2, on healing, deals with Christian mission in the context of African witchcraft (H.-J. Becken), African indigenous healing (S.D. Edwards) and a Zionist cleansing ceremony in Soweto, South Africa (H. Mkhize). Part 3, on religious communication, contains chapters on music and leadership in Zionist churches (M. Xulu), prayer, sacrifice and divination (S.K. Mfusi) and the interface between biblical and extra-biblical revelation (S.W.D. Dube). Part 4, on understanding, self-understanding and mutual sharing, includes articles on anthropological fieldwork among Zulu Zionists in KwaMashu (M. Mohr), Zionists and theology (D.C. van Zyl), the symbolism of fire (A.S. van Niekerk) and the relationship between 'mainline' and independent Churches (B.A. Mazibuko). Part 5 is on orality, with essays on Shembe preaching (J.A. Loubser) and Isaiah Shembe as portrayed in oral history (M.C. Kitshoff)
Notes: Met bibliogr., indices, noten
Konings, Piet 2003: Religious revival in the Roman Catholic
Church and the autochthony-allochthony conflict in Cameroon. Africa :
journal of the International African Institute vol. 73, no. 1, p.
Abstract: This article explores the reasons for, and the repercussions of, a virulent and protracted crisis in the South West Province of anglophone Cameroon during the 1990s caused by the emergence of a Pentecostalism-inspired revival movement within the Roman Catholic Church. The so-called Maranatha movement and main-line Catholicism were viewed by both parties as incompatible, almost leading to a schism within the Church. The originally internal Church dispute gradually became a particularly explosive issue in the region when the politics of belonging, fuelled by the government and the regional elite during political liberalization, became pervasive. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum. in English and French. [Journal abstract]
Kouvouama, A. 1988: "À chacun son prophète!".
Politique africaine no. 31, p. 62-65.
Abstract: Rés.: Le développement au Congo des mouvements religieux à caractère prophétique apparaît comme une réponse à la crise et correspond à des nouveaux modes de sociabilité des individus. L'attitude du pouvoir central face à ces mouvements est incertaine. Au moment de l'indépendance, l'État naissant s'est appuyé sur ces mouvements aux revendications nationalistes. Aujourd'hui, l'État hésite entre une véritable interdiction, pour des raisons idéologiques, et le compromis du fait de la fréquentation généralisée de ces lieux. Note, réf., rés. aussi en anglais (p. 139)
Kouvouama, Abel 2001: Modernité africaine : les
figures du politique et du religieux.Paris: Paari.
Notes: Bibliogr.: p. -165. - Met index, noten
Krabbenborg, Mirjam 1995: De religieuze beleving van enkele
Afrikanen in Zuid-Nederland en in de door Afrikanen geleide Acts
Revival Church in Den Haag : een godsdienstwetenschappelijke
Abstract: Doelstelling van deze doctoraalscriptie is het verwerven van inzicht in de wijze waarop Afrikanen in de drie zuidelijke provincies van Nederland (Zeeland, Noord-Brabant en Limburg) omgaan met religie en hoe zij hun geloofsbeleving vormgeven. Verder wordt onderzocht of de aanwezigheid van een zelfstandig Afrikaans kerkgenootschap invloed heeft op de geloofsbeleving van Afrikanen en wordt aandacht geschonken aan eventuele verschuivingen in de geloofsbeleving van Afrikanen wanneer ze buiten Afrika woonachtig zijn. Tussen november 1992 en september 1993 werd onderzoek gedaan naar de geloofsbeleving van vier in Zuid-Nederland woonachtige Afrikanen - twee rooms-katholieken uit Zaïre, een protestants-christelijke uit Eritrea, en een moslim uit Somalië. Daarnaast werd de geloofsbeleving van Afrikanen die behoren tot de Acts Revival Church, een in 1992 door Ghanezen in Den Haag opgericht kerkgenootschap, bestudeerd
Notes: Doctoraalscriptie Theologische Faculteit Tilburg
Bibliogr.: p. 113-119. - Met bijl., noten
Lado, T. L. 1996: Religiosité chrétienne et
politique au Zaïre : le risque de l'opium. Zaïre-Afrique :
économie, culture, vie sociale année 36, no. 308, p.
Abstract: Aujourd'hui en Afrique en général et au Zaïre en particulier où l'on a connu toutes sortes de servitude et où l'enlisement dans la misère ne fait que s'accentuer, on note une profusion vertigineuse des sectes religieuses et des mouvements empreints d'ésotérisme. Serait-ce la recherche d'un refuge exprimant une défaite et une résignation consommées? L'auteur expose les pièges de l'exploitation possible de la religiosité chrétienne à des fins illusoire dans un contexte politique comme celui du Zaïre. On invite ici et là des gens à prier dans des nouvelles églises chrétiennes qui ne cessent de promettre une guérision multiforme et immédiate, fascinante pour une population en mal de repères et dont les attaches existentielles se fragilisent de plus en plus. Or, endormir un peuple avec des discours providentialistes n'est autre que transformer la religion en ce que Karl Marx appelait 'l'opium du peuple'. Le véritable christianisme est celui qui œuvre pour que les chrétiens prennent conscience de leurs responsabilités politiques, sociales et économiques
Langewiesche, Katrin 1998: Des conversions réversibles:
études de cas dans le nord-ouest du Burkina Faso. Journal des
africanistes t. 68, fasc. 1/2, p. 47-65.
Abstract: Trois histoires de conversion individuelles, collectées entre 1995 et 1997 en milieu rural au nord-ouest du Burkina Faso, dans la province du Yatenga, servent de point de départ pour analyser quelques aspects du concept de la conversion. Dans la province du Yatenga, les musulmans sont largement majoritaires. Les trois religions universalistes (islam, catholicisme et protestantisme) ont en commun le fait de se placer en concurrence vis-à-vis de la religion locale de la société mossi qui repose sur le culte des ancêtres. L'auteur montre que les mécanismes de la "conversion" peuvent être très différents, selon qu'il s'agit d'une conversion à une religion majoritaire (comme l'islam), à une religion minoritaire (comme le protestantisme charismatique) ou au culte des ancêtres. Les conversions présentées sont réversibles et "adaptables" en fonction des circonstances et du statut de l'individu. Elles ne se présentent guère comme une rupture définitive. Bibliogr., notes, réf., rés. en français et en anglais
Laurent, Pierre J. 1998: Conversions aux Assemblées
de Dieu chez les Mossi du Burkina Faso: modernité et
socialité. Journal des africanistes t. 68, fasc. 1/2, p.
Abstract: Au Burkina Faso, les églises pentecôtistes prennent beaucoup d'importance et parmi elles notamment l'Église des Assemblées de Dieu: elles incarnent une certaine idée de la modernité. La conversion permet alors, par rapport à l'entourage villageois ancestral, une mise à distance favorable au développement. La conversion est alors un processus d'invention ou de négociation d'une autre intersubjectivité. Il s'agit d'ailleurs d'un processus d'hybridation entre les cultes des ancêtres et l'imaginaire véhiculé par l'Église des Assemblées de Dieu qui est un véritable "élargissement du monde divin", une cohabitation des divinités immanentes et trancendentes. Il y a à l'œuvre un processus d'individualisation, qui est en même temps un processus de recomposition des solidarités communautaires - la communauté des croyants devient un réseau d'appartenance élective de grande socialité. Bibliogr., notes, réf., rés. en français et en anglais
Laurent, Pierre J. 2002: Effervescence religieuse et
gouvernance: l'example des Assemblées de Dieu du Burkina Faso.
Politique africaine no. 87, p. 95-116.
Abstract: L'Afrique de l'Ouest s'urbanise rapidement. L'urbanisation et l'émergence des villes transforment la manière même de vivre en commun. Dans un tel contexte de changement social, ce texte s'efforce de cerner le "bricolage" à l'œuvre autour de la gestion des affaires locales au Burkina Faso, dans laquelle l'Église des Assemblées de Dieu est impliquée au même titre que d'autres institutions. Le succès des Assemblées de Dieu au Burkina Faso doit se lire sur une toile de fond de "modernité insécurisée", où les liens coutumiers de solidarité et d'entente s'effritent et où la faiblesse de l'État ne permet pas d'assurer la sécurité d'une partie importante de la population. Les Assemblées de Dieu représentent une voie bricolée de gestion des rapports sociaux, très différente du chemin tracé par les 'nouveaux pouvoirs sorciers" qui articulent l'insécurité et la violence. En offrant des espaces privilégiés de sociabilité, et en liant conversion et rituels de guérison divine, les Assemblées de Dieu s'affirment comme une solution miraculeuse à la solitude, à la maladie, à l'adversité, à la souffrance physique ou sociale, et à la quête de soi. Notes, réf., rés. en français et en anglais (p. 227]. [Résumé ASC Leiden]
Laurent, Pierre J. 2003: Les pentecôtistes du Burkina
Faso : mariage, pouvoir et guérison.Paris: Éditions
Notes: Bibliogr.: p. -427. - Met index, noten
Laurent, Pierre J. 2004: Décentralisation et
citoyenneté au Burkina Faso : le cas de
Abstract: Les analyses conduites dans ce volume rendent compte des processus d'urbanisation et de changements sociaux en cours en Afrique de l'Ouest. Elles ont pour objet la ville de Ziniaré au Burkina Faso. Elles montrent une ville en train de se faire, de se transformer, d'une part, grâce à ses habitants, nouveaux et anciens, aux associations et aux ONG, à la coopération, et d'autre part, sous l'impulsion de l'État, qui a donné un nouveau cadre institutionnel à travers la politique de décentralisation. Mais aussi en raison des effets induits par des technologies: téléphone, routes, électricité, télévision, Internet... (un chapitre est consacré à une socio-anthropologie du barrage de Tamissi). Tout en mettant en évidence les articulations originales entre le local et le global, et la modernité et la tradition, ce volume éclaire un moment du devenir social de cet ensemble humain à partir d'études sur les initiatives économiques, l'action de jeunes, le développement d'initiatives religieuses (organisations musulmanes, pentecôtisme), la vie quotidienne, l'action publique, le système des valeurs partagées dans une ville émergente. Auteurs: Marie Castaigne, Felice Dassetto, Marie Fontaine, Pierre-Joseph Laurent, Fabien Locht, Jacinthe Mazzocchetti, André Nyamba, Boureima Ouedraogo, Mamadou B. Ouedraogo, Tasséré Ouedraogo, Raogo Antoine Sawadogo, Pamphile Sebahara, Flore Sibdogo, François Wyngaerden. [Résumé ASC Leiden]
Notes: Met bibliogr., noten
Leroy, F. J. 1976: La Jamaa : notice bibliographique -
chronique - documents. Cahiers des religions africaines vol. 10, no.
20, p. 257-284.
Abstract: Le Mouvement de la Jamaa a pris naissance à la paroisse de Musoshi (Ruwe), à Kolwezi, en 1953, au moment où le P. Tempels y est arrivé comme curé. Ce mouvement a été, depuis l'origine, une recherche pour aider les foyers chrétiens catholiques zaïrois à s'épanouir de façon authentique dans toute leur vie à la lumière de l'Evangile de Jésus-Christ. On présente ici une bibliographie autour ce mouvement charismatique, une liste des documents et faits connus sous titre "Autorités et Jamaa", une liste des textes Jamaa disponibles, et deux documents: 1. Adresse pastorale des évêques du Shaba aux Jamastes, et 2) une lettre du P. Damase Lemaire, Vicaire Episcopal (Lubumbashi. Une mise au point de l'archidiocèse - Taïfa, 16 octobre 1974)
Lötter, H. P. P. 1991: Some Christian perceptions of
social justice in a transforming South Africa. Politikon :
Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir staatsleer : South African journal of
political science vol. 19, no. 1, p. 45-65.
Abstract: Sum.: The author examines the adequacy of the policies of a few selected South African church groups in sociopolitical transformation. In order to do this, he first examines the role of religion in identifying injustice in South Africa and then the contribution that religion makes to facilitate and nurture dialogue and deliberation. The different kinds of strategies for the transformation of injustice into justice that are rejected or sanctioned and encouraged are also scrutinized, as well as the extent to which religious viewpoints contribute to a general consensus on principles of justice for a new South Africa. Reference is made to four important policy documents, released by various groups of Christians: 'Kerk en Samelewing' (1986, 1990), which represents mainstream Afrikaner religious thought; 'The Kairos Document' (1986) and 'The road to Damascus' (1989), which represent the way that black Christians supportive of democratic opposition groups think, and 'A relevant Pentecostal witness' (1989), which is representative of how the traditionally apolitical Pentecostal black Christians have become politicized in South Africa today. Reference is also made to the 'Rustenburg Declaration', a document released in 1990 by the most representative meeting of church leaders ever held in South Africa
Ludwar-Ene, Gudrun 1991: New religious movements and
society in Nigeria.Bayreuth: Eckhard Breitinger.
Abstract: Much has been published in recent decades on the new religious movements in Nigeria. Earlier studies have been mainly concerned with the foundation histories, doctrines, liturgies and organization of the respective movements considered, with scant attention paid to the sociocultural and political milieu in which they operate and to the ways in which they respond to this milieu. More recent publications try to make up for this omission. The articles in the present volume contribute to this approach from two perspectives: the shared perceptions and interpretations embodied in and articulated by the movements, and the motivations of the individual adherents in terms of the relevance of the adopted movement in their own perception and interpretation of the situation in which they find themselves. Contents: The quest for identity in African new religious movements, by Friday M. Mbon - New religious movements and the Nigerian social order, by Jacob K. Olupona - Spiritual church participation as a survival strategy among urban migrant women in southern Nigeria, by Gudrun Ludwar-Ene - Nationalistic motifs in a Nigerian new religious movement, by Friday M. Mbon
Notes: Met noten
M'Passou, Denis B. 1994: History of African independent
churches in southern Africa 1892-1992.Mulanje: Spot
Abstract: This book is devoted to the history of African Independent Churches in southern Africa in the period 1892-1992. Contents: 1. Arrival of early Christian missionaries; 2. African Independent Churches before 1892; 3. The origin of 'Ethiopian' churches; 4. The origin of Zionist churches in South Africa; 5. African Independent Churches in Lesotho; 6. African Independent Churches in Swaziland; 7. Ecumenical developments among Independent Churches in Swaziland; 8. African Independent Churches in Botswana; 9. African Independent Churches in Zimbabwe; 10. Independent Churches in Malawi; 11. Some unorthodox break-aways in Malawi; 12. American-linked African Independent Churches; 13. Pentecostal and Apostolic churches in Malawi; 14. African Independent Churches in Namibia; 15. Baster congregations in Namibia; 16. African Independent Churches in Zambia; 17. African Independent Churches in Mozambique; 18. Ecumenical ventures in African Independent Churches
Notes: Met index, noten
Eerder verschenen o.d.t.: History of unhistorical churches in southern Africa 1892-1992. - Kampala : Frater Publications, 1993
Mahlke, Reiner 1994: The Holy Spirit in the African
Independent/Indigenous Churches as reflected in the literature and an
effort at clarification. Africana Marburgensia vol. 27, no. 1/2, p.
Abstract: The Holy Spirit and its works is one of the most important features of the religious practices of African Independent/Indigenous Churches (AIC). In several Independent Churches in Africa, especially of the Spirit-type (Zionist and Apostolic), the Holy Spirit can be considered the key concept to understanding church members' belief systems. The present article first surveys the literature dealing with the broader framework of Holy Spirit theology and spiritual practice. The second part outlines some general features and structures of the Holy Spirit complex in African Independent Churches. The whole notion of the Holy Spirit becomes clearer when the wide range of observations it encompasses are grouped according to contents into theory, deriving from both Christianity (theology, trinity, voice or messenger, Jesus Christ, angels) and the African world (ancestors, spirit world, power and balance of power); action, including both receiving (baptism, prophesying, healing, cleansing, visions/dreams) and giving (praying, preaching, singing); and holy spiritual potential or status, both of the believers (prophethood, guidance of believers, a better moral and social life) and of material things (staffs, robes, flags, beads, colours). Bibliogr
Mahlke, Reiner 1995: Aspects of healing in Zionist Churches
in South Africa. Africana Marburgensia vol. 28, no. 1/2, p.
Abstract: The African spirit world is inhabited by multiple (evil) forces which by means of sorcery, witchcraft, touching of evil spirits and revenge of the ancestors can be dangerous for human beings and lead eventually to sickness. Healing, therefore, is one of the most important ceremonies in African Independent/Indigenous Churches (AIC), especially in the Zionist Churches of Durban and the Witwatersrand, South Africa, where the author conducted fieldwork. Healing is performed in three different religious settings and ceremonial forms, namely in consultations of a healer, in moral and healing services, and by immersions in water (mostly exorcisms). The efficacy of the healing process is determined by the extent to which the various spiritual forces participate, the most powerful in the Zionist Churches being the divine force, that is God, and his messenger, the Holy Spirit. The remedies against the particular illness are given to the healers by visions from God and the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit transmits the power to the prophets, who in turn give it to the patients. This is experienced as "stream of energy". The power will supersede the evil forces inside the body and help the person to recover, physically and spiritually, and turn to a new quality of ethic life as a member of the Zionist Church. Notes, ref
Mahlke, Reiner 1998: On types of AICs : proposals for an
appropriate use of terminology. Africana Marburgensia: Sonderheft
Sonderh. 17, p. 65-78 : fig.
Abstract: After an overview of terminology in selected works on African Independent/Indigenous Churches (AIC or AICs) in southern Africa and an examination of the use and meaning of the term 'AIC', the present author proposes a refinement of existing terminology, drawing on his own research on Zionist and Apostolic Churches in the Durban and Johannesburg areas of South Africa. He suggests that Zionist and Apostolic-type churches can be usefully qualified as "big" or " small", depending on the degree of organization, the presence of African versus Christian elements, and the occurrence of ecstatic elements in ritual practice, and that some AICs may be qualified as New Religions or New Religious Movements. Ref
Makhubu, Paul 1988: Who are the independent
churches?Johannesburg: Skotaville Publishers.
Abstract: The author, a senior representative and leader of a Southern African Independent Church, rectifies some of the errors, confusion and wrong concepts about the African Independent Churches (AIC) in Southern Africa (especially South Africa) and provides information about areas neglected in the past. The following topics are discussed: naming the AICs; types of AICs in Southern Africa (the Ethiopian, Zionist, Apostolic, Evangelical-Pentecostal, and Zionist-cum-Ethiopian types); reasons for leaving the mainline churches; the author's personal experience with missionaries; AIC theology; hymns; healing ministry; items used as weapons of the Spirit; festivals and ceremonies; Sunday school and youth work; ecumenicity; and current AIC trends
Manus, Ukachukwu C. 1991: King-Christology : the example of
some Aladura Churches in Nigeria. Africana Marburgensia vol. 24, no.
1, p. 28-46.
Abstract: The background and the origin of the Christology of the Aladura Churches of Nigeria are inherent in the royal traditions of the Yoruba. The author first describes Yoruba traditional kingship institutions in precolonial times: the selection of an Oba, the sacred nature of the Oba, his rulership and authority. He concludes that the charismatic aspect of Oba rulership has inspired Yoruba indigenous Christian establishments to conceive Jesus Christ as Jesu Kristi Oba in their churches and community worship. Secondly, the author assembles some scripture texts, choruses and hymns in order to demonstrate empirically how the Aladura Churches have evolved a King-Christology which is native to their culture and which is instructive for inculturation theology. Thirdly, he focuses on the extent to which ideas about the obaship have influenced the Aladura Churches' Christological thinking. Ref
Marshall-Fratani, Ruth 1998: Mediating the global and the
local in Nigerian Pentecostalism. Journal of religion in Africa vol.
28, no. 3, p. 278-315.
Abstract: One of the questions looked at in this paper is the extent to which the current wave of Pentecostalism sweeping Nigeria is providing an example of the creation of delocalized subjects or, at least, of subjects whose individual and collective identities have been formed in terms of a new type of negotiation between local and global, in which the media play an important role. The second issue addressed is the way Pentecostalism positions itself in relation to the Nigerian nation-State because transnationalism offers possibilities for identification and allegiance which may allow groups to bypass or confront the nation-State. Certainly one of the confrontations central to the strategy of the Pentecostals for "winning" Nigeria is the demonization of Islam, capitalizing on the resentment the southern Christians feel for the Muslim northerners who have tended to dominate Nigerian politics ever since independence. In Pentecostal terms this is conflated into a Manichean struggle between two religious complexes. All this leads to the construction in Nigeria of a postnational form of religious identity, which in facts draws the groups involved into a vicious circle of religious conflict. This could eventually pose a danger to Nigerian society as a whole. Bibliogr., notes, ref
Marshall-Fratani, Ruth and André Corten 2001:
Between Babel and Pentecost : transnational Pentecostalism in Africa
and Latin America.London: Hurst.
Abstract: Over the past two decades, Latin American and African societies have experienced the phenomenal growth of Pentecostal movements. A 'bricolage' of extremely heterogeneous elements, contemporary Pentecostalism provides a striking example of the paradox of difference and uniformity, of flow and closure, that seems to be at the heart of processes of transnationalism and globalization. The studies in this volume reveal the extreme diversity of Pentecostalism in Latin America and Africa, especially in its social composition. The volume contains the following chapters on Africa: The complex provance of some elements of African Pentecostal theology (Paul Gifford) - Mediating the global and local in Nigerian Pentecostalism (Ruth Marshall-Fratani) - Time and transcultural technologies of the self in the Ghanaian Pentecostal diaspora (Rijk van Dijk) - The quest for missionaries: transnationalism and township Pentecostalism in Malawi (Harri Englund) - Transnationalisation and local transformations: the example of the Church of Assemblies of God of Burkina Faso (Pierre Joseph Laurent) - The expansion of Pentecostalism in Benin: individual rationales and transnational dynamics (Cédric Mayrargue) - The new Pentecostal networks of Brazzaville (Elisabeth Dorier-Apprill)
Notes: Met bibliogr., index, noten
Marshall-Fratani, Ruth 2001: Prospérité
miraculeuse : les pasteurs pentecôtistes et l'argent de Dieu au
Nigeria. Politique africaine no. 82, p. 24-44.
Abstract: Dans la dernière décennie du vingtième siècle s'observaient au Nigeria, comme dans d'autres pays du continent africain, des changements dans les catégories sociales et les représentations du succès et du pouvoir, l'accent étant désormais sur "l'informel", comprenant des tactiques associées à la ruse et à la débrouille, le criminel et, par dessus tout, l'occulte et le surnaturel. Au cours de la même décennie, une nouvelle sorte de personnage doté de succès social et de pouvoir est apparue sur la scène dans le Nigeria urbain, les pasteurs des nouvelles Églises pentecôtistes. Associée dans le passé à la pauvreté et au sacrifice, la vocation de pasteur est maintenant synonyme de fortune, prestige, connections transnationales et politiques. Cet article analyse les changements qui se manifestent dans l'imaginaire pentecôtiste depuis une vingtaine d'années, et explore leurs implications pour la communauté pentecôtiste, et, plus généralement, les croyances populaires. Notes, réf., rés. en français et en anglais (p. 215)
Marshall, R. 1991: Power in the name of Jesus. Review of
African political economy no. 52, p. 21-37 : ill.
Abstract: Drawing on six months' ethnographic research in Lagos from January to June 1991, the author focuses briefly on the origins and extent of, and divisions within, pentecostalism in Nigeria, but her main argument concerns the ways in which foreign doctrines and institutions are 'set to work' by their adherents to make sense of - and empower themselves within - deteriorating economic, social and political conditions and the absence (or repression) of other bases in civil society from which resistance can be expressed. She pays particular attention to born-again women and the ways in which belief in a certain order of gender relations and sexuality empowers women adherents within the specific conditions of sexual and gender politics in Lagos. At the most general level, the attempts to articulate and institutionalize Pentecostal beliefs and practices involve the creation of a new cultural fabric, autonomous structures and institutions, new bases for power and its legitimation, and amount to a conceptual and practical challenge to the 'power monopolies'. What sort of lasting social and political impact such a challenge may have is as yet unclear, and depends to a large extent on the born-again community's attitude to participation in institutional politics and the way the movement becomes politicized, if at all. Bibliogr., sum
Mary, André 1998: Le voir pour y croire :
expériences visionnaires et récits de conversion.
Journal des africanistes t. 68, fasc. 1/2, p. 173-196.
Abstract: Au sein d'itinéraires religieux différents qui cohabitent aujourd'hui dans le même espace social urbain - en l'occurrence à Libreville, Gabon - l'expérience visionnaire dans ses modalités les plus diverses (voyage, transe, rêve, révélation) et les mises en récit qui lui donnent forme et existence sociale, occupe une place essentielle et décisive. À partir du suivi biographique d'une famille d'"initiés convertis", d'origine Eshira (région de la Ngounié), dont l'auteur a pu vivre depuis quinze ans les itinéraires religieux des uns et des autres, l'auteur analyse les conversions de ces initiés de Bwiti, de l'Ombwiri ou du Mabandji aux nouvelles Églises de Réveil qui se sont développés au Gabon à partir des années 1970 et 1980. Il examine notamment la manière dont les récits de conversion illustrent le jeu des écarts entre initiation et conversion, vision et possession, élection et engagement, mais procèdent également à l'hybridation des formes de l'expérience religieuse et de la construction de soi. Bibliogr., notes, rés. en français et en anglais
Mary, André 1999: Le défi du syncrétisme
: le travail symbolique de la religion d'Eboga (Gabon).Paris: École
des hautes études en sciences sociales.
Notes: Bibliogr.: - 506. - Met index, noten
Mary, André 2000: Anges de Dieu et esprits
territoriaux: une religion africaine à l'épreuve de la
transnationalisation. Autrepart no. 14, p. 71-89.
Abstract: Certaines Églises chrétiennes d'origine africaine, comme l'Église du christianisme céleste, d'origine béninoise, fondée en 1947, ont depuis plusieurs décennies une implantation attestée non seulement dans de nombreux pays africains, limitrophes ou non, mais aussi en Europe et aux États-Unis, par le biais de la migration et de la formation de diasporas chrétiennes africaines. C'est pourquoi on peut parler de transnationalisation dans le cas de ces Églises qui échappent au contrôle des États et contournent les frontières. Le fondateur de l'Église du christianisme céleste, le prophète Samuel Oschoffa, est né d'un père et d'une mère de citoyenneté dahoméenne mais d'origine yoruba. L'Église s'implante initialement à proximité de la frontière entre le Dahomey, pays francophone (actuel Bénin), et le Nigéria anglophone où le prophète se rend dès 1951 et où l'Église a aujourd'hui de nombreux fidèles. Mais la dualité de cette identité originelle construite sur la frontière a engendré à la mort du Prophète une lutte de succession entre les prétendants au fauteuil de chef suprême, sur laquelle se greffent des enjeux identitaires ethnonationaux, non seulement dans le foyer originel entre "Béninois" et "Nigerian", mais aussi dans chacun des pays d'immigration de la religion entre probéninois et pronigerians, entre culture francophone et culture anglophone. Paradoxalement, se manifeste dans la branche de l'Église gabonaise un "antibéninisme" qui se traduit en un discours ethnonational et xénophobe. La transnationalisation s'accompagne ainsi d'une politique active de reterritorialisation visant le contrôle des paroisses mais aussi des lieux saints et des centres de pèlerinage. Bibliogr., notes, réf. en français (p. 190) et en anglais (p. 194)
Mary, André 2002: Le pentecôtisme brésilien
en Terre africaine : l'universel abstrait du Royaume de Dieu. Cahiers
d'études africaines vol. 42, cah. 167, p. 463-478.
Abstract: L'expansion du mouvement pentecôtiste en Afrique est généralement liée à ses origines et à ses ressources américaines, même si les formes de son appropriation par les populations africaines sont anciennes et multiples. Cet article fait le point sur les stratégies missionnaires, essentiellement urbaines, de l'Église Universelle du Royaume de Dieu, l'une des Églises néopentecôtistes les plus importantes du Brésil. Cette Église multiplie les paradoxes en conjuguant l'inspiration de la Puissance de l'Esprit et un modèle d'organisation épiscopal plutôt catholique, ou en associant une stratégie de visibilité, un prosélytisme de rue, et une politique du secret et de la discrétion. Sur le marché en pleine effervescence des pratiques de guérison divine et de délivrance, les pasteurs animateurs de l'Universelle ne jouent pas les 'docteurs', et encore moins les 'prophètes', de la Réconciliation nationale, mais ils utilisent pleinement les procédés d'une dramaturgie qui fait parler les diables et se propose de libérer l'Afrique de ses démons. L'universalité aussi abstraite que discrète sur laquelle ouvre le 'Royaume de Dieu' n'offre pas cependant les mêmes possibilités d'identification communautaire et d'investissement prophétique que les Églises pentecôtistes africaines ou la mouvance évangélique internationale. Les données de cet article ont été recueillies lors de trois missions d'enquête en Côte d'Ivoire et au Gabon (décembre 1999, juillet 2001, mars-avril 2002) et complétées par une mission á Rio de Janeiro. Bibliogr., notes, réf., rés. en anglais et en français [Résumé extrait de la revue]
Mary, André 2002: Prophètes pasteurs : la
politique de la délivrance en Côte d'Ivoire. Politique
africaine no. 87, p. 69-94.
Abstract: En Côte d'Ivoire, une rencontre singulière s'est opérée entre l'héritage d'une tradition prophétique, l'ouverture d'une crise profonde de légitimité du pouvoir politique et l'irruption sur la scène politico-médiatique autant que religieuse d'une génération de prophètes pasteurs qui prennent position dans l'espace public. La politique de la délivrance inspirée par ces hommes de Dieu lie le retour de la prospérité et la réconciliation nationale à l'éradication des démons du pays, ce qui n'est pas sans risque, comme l'illustre l'activité, dans certaines églises évangéliques, pentecôtistes ou charismatiques, de relance de la guerre des esprits à l'automne 2002, à la suite des combats du 18 septembre. Notes, réf., rés. en français et en anglais (p.227). [Résumé extrait de la revue]
Mataczynski, David A. 1986: A re-examination of the Jamaa :
"thick description". Les cahiers du Centre d'étude
et de documentation africaines no. 1, p. I-III, 1-102.
Abstract: Examination of the Jamaa (which in Swahili means family), a religious movement which developed within the Catholic Church in the Belgian Congo toward the end of the colonial era. It sprang from the meeting of three distinctive cultures: Luba-African, Flemish-Limburger, and Franciscan-Catholic. The initial source of ideas for its emergence was the Flemish Franciscan missionary Placide Frans Tempels. The chief religious concept of the movement is that of the encounter with the other. This primarily occurs between individuals joined in marriage. The author discusses the background, doctrines, and characteristics of the Jamaa, as well as the fragmentation of the movement after independence. Bibiiogr., notes
Mate, Rekopantswe 2002: Wombs as God's laboratories:
Pentecostal discourses of femininity in Zimbabwe. Africa : journal of
the International African Institute vol. 72, no. 4, p.
Abstract: Studies of born-again or Pentecostal Churches in Africa generally conclude that they help members embrace modernity. Such studies are rather silent on the demands of this ideological frame on women and men. This article looks at two Zimbabwean women's organizations, Gracious Woman and Precious Stones, affiliated to two prominent Pentecostal Churches, the Zimbabwe Assemblies of God in Africa and Family of God respectively. Using ethnographic methods, it argues that such organizations teach women domesticity and romanticize female subordination as glorifying God. They discourage individualism by exalting motherhood, wifehood and domesticity as service to God. These demands emerge at a time when life is changing drastically in urban areas as women get educated and enter the professions. Economically a small but growing number of black families have experienced some upward mobility - something these Churches encourage through 'the gospel of prosperity'. Although accumulation and upward mobility free families from (traditional) kin obligations which the Churches encourage, women are discouraged from resisting the patriarchal yoke even when material circumstances make it possible. The organizations repackage patriarchy as Christian faith. The article concludes that if these Churches are concerned with managing modernity, then they see modernity as female subordination. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum. in English and French. [Journal abstract]
Maxwell, David 1995: Witches, prophets and avenging spirits
: the second Christian movement in north-east Zimbabwe. Journal of
religion in Africa vol. 25, fasc. 3, p. 309-339.
Abstract: This paper analyses the proliferation of pentecostal churches in north-east Zimbabwe. It takes as a case study the Hwesa, a group of Shona-speaking peoples of the Katerere dynasty, northern Nyanga District, where the author conducted interviews between 1987 and 1993. One remarkable religious feature of the war of liberation in which the north-east was caught up from 1976 was the resacralization of the ancestors. This rehabilitation of Katerere's 'mhondoro' spirit cults forms the backdrop to the area's second Christian movement characterized by the proliferation of new pentecostal churches. This paper considers the following churches: ZAOGA (Zimbabwe Assemblies of God Africa) Mugodhi, Torpiya, Zviratidzo, Rudjeko, Borngaes and Samanga. It explains the rise of these churches in terms of continuity. They are a perpetuation of gender, generational and ethnic struggles which have raged in Katerere throughout this century. Much of pentecostalism's appeal can be attributed to the manner in which it redefines the meaning of spirit possession and to the fact that upon the liberation war's cessation angry spirits of the dead had to be exorcised. The proliferation of pentecostal churches can also be explained in terms of more contemporary social processes, in particular the rise in witchcraft accusations since 1980, due to social differentiation. Bibliogr., notes, ref
Maxwell, David 1998: 'Delivered from the spirit of
poverty?' : Pentecostalism, prosperity and modernity in Zimbabwe.
Journal of religion in Africa vol. 28, no. 3, p. 350-373.
Abstract: Taking up the challenge that so far throughout the world little attention has been paid to the relation between Pentecostalism and economic culture, the author examines the prosperity gospel propounded by the Zimbabwe Assemblies of God, Africa (ZAOGA), which claims to be the largest church in Zimbabwe. Most of its leaders make use of American Bible belt literature which dissuades adherents from evaluating the present economic order by encouraging them to try to benefit from it to the top of their bent. The emphasis falls heavily on the individual. Despite what seems to be a prevalent American influence, on closer inspection this appears to be the icing on the cake and that the dominant prosperity teachings are largely derived from indigenous southern African sources and are shaped by Zimbabwean concerns. The system enables the Pentecostalists to make the best of rapid social change, at the same time often maintaining a solid Shona base. In his conclusion the author points out that many of the born-again Pentecostalists in Zimbabwe are not solely motivated by economic gain and, unlike their aberrant leaders, their tendency to accumulate is moderated by other more fundamental biblical doctrines like tithing and Christian charity. In some ways the ZAOGA is a victim of its own success. Some young second-generation members are calling for reform, but the author is not sanguine about their chances for success in the present economic climate in Zimbabwe. Bibliogr., notes, ref
Maxwell, David 1999: Historicizing Christian independency:
the southern African Pentecostal movement, c. 1908-60. The journal of
African history vol. 40, no. 2, p. 243-264.
Abstract: Early studies of Zionist-type independency in southern Africa were historically weak. Missiologists and sociologists ignored the question of origins, preferring instead to consider issues of syncretism, authenticity and cultural resilience. By adopting an international and regional perspective, this article provides an account of the historical origins and early evolution of Pentecostalism in southern Africa. It focuses on the Apostolic Faith Mission (AFM), founded in 1908. The evolution of the AFM from religious movement to institutional church, and its relations with 'spirit type' independency in South Africa and Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) are analysed, contrasting the sympathetic response from the South African State with the frosty reception in Southern Rhodesia. Notes, ref., sum
Maxwell, David 2000: 'Catch the cockerel before dawn':
Pentecostalism and politics in post-colonial Zimbabwe. Africa :
journal of the International African Institute vol. 70, no. 2, p.
Abstract: This article examines relations between Pentecostalism and politics in postcolonial Zimbabwe through a case study of one of Africa's largest Pentecostal movements, Zimbabwe Assemblies of God, Africa (ZAOGA). The Church's relations with the State changed considerably from the colonial to the postcolonial era. The movement began in the 1950s as a sectarian township-based organization which eschewed politics but used white Rhodesian and American contacts to gain resources. In the first decade of independence (1980-1990) the leadership embraced the dominant discourses of cultural nationalism and development but fell foul of the ruling party, ZANU/PF, because of its 'seeming' connections with the rebel politician Ndabiningi Sithole and the American religious right. By the 1990s, ZAOGA and ZANU/PF had embraced, each drawing legitimacy from the other. However, this reciprocal assimilation of elites and the authoritarianism of ZAOGA's leadership are in tension with the democratic egalitarian culture found in local assemblies. These alternative Pentecostal practices are in symbiosis with radical township politics and progressive sources in civil society. Thus, while Pentecostalism may renew the process of politics in Zimbabwe, it may itself be renewed by the outside forces of wider Zimbabwean society. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum. in English and French
Maxwell, David, Ingrid Lawrie, and Adrian Hastings 2002:
Christianity and the African imagination : essays in honour of Adrian
Hastings.Leiden [etc.]: Brill.
Abstract: During the twentieth century, Christianity shifted its centre of gravity to the southern hemisphere, Africa becoming the most significant area of church growth. This volume in honour of Adrian Hastings (1929-2001), scholar of African religion, explores Christianity's advance across the continent, and its capturing of the African imagination. From the medieval Catholic Kingdom of Kongo to a transnational Pentecostal movement in postcolonial Zimbabwe, the chapters explore how African agents - priests and prophets, martyrs and missionaries, evangelists and catechists - have seized Christianity and made it theirs. Emphasizing popular religion, the book shows how the Christian ideas and texts, practices and symbols, which have been adapted by Africans, help them accept existential passions and empower them through faith to deal with material concerns for health and wealth, and to overcome evil. Contributors: Richard Gray, Samuel Gyanfosu, Ingrid Lawrie, John Lonsdale, Donald Mackay, David Maxwell, J.D.Y. Peel, Terence Ranger, Matthew Schoffeleers, John Waliggo, Andrew Walls, Kevin Ward. [ASC Leiden abstract]
Notes: Met bibliogr., index, lit. opg
Maxwell, David J. 1997: The spirit and the scapular :
Pentecostal and Catholic interactions in northern Nyanga District,
Zimbabwe in the 1950s and early 1960s. Journal of Southern African
studies vol. 23, no. 2, p. 283-300.
Abstract: This paper examines the missionary encounter with the Hwesa people of the Katerere chiefdom of northeast Zimbabwe (then Rhodesia), during the 1950s. During this decade there was such a rapid conversion to the new churches that they took on the appearance of a religious movement. Africans rapidly adhered to Elim Pentecostalism as it legitimated itself in local terms, resacralizing the landscape in Christian fashion, pitting itself against local demons, and making resonances with local concepts of illness. Likewise, the Catholic hierarchy literally followed a movement of popular Catholicism north, as Manyika migrants evicted from the south, following the implementation of the Land Apportionment Act, arrived with their medals, scapulars and village schools, demanding mission facilities. The consequent patterns of Christianization were not, however, just the result of local appropriation of the missionary package. They also emerged from the encounter between the missionary movements themselves. Catholicism was represented by nationalist Irish Carmelites, and Protestantism by Ulster Pentecostals. Thus the Irish Question was re-fought in the plains of Katerere, inevitably drawing Africans into the struggle and creating a mosaic of Christian factions. Notes, ref., sum
Mbe, Akoko R. 2002: New Pentecostalism in the wake of the
economic crisis in Cameroon. Nordic journal of African studies vol.
11, no. 3, p. 359-376.
Abstract: In recent decades there has been an upsurge of Pentecostal groups in Cameroon. This new wave of Pentecostal groups is coming in with the 'prosperity doctrine' as an economic message at a time when Cameroon is experiencing a serious economic crisis. This is contrary to the ascetic position taken by the mainline Pentecostal churches before the economic crisis started. This article reveals that the mainline Pentecostal churches have, with the crisis, shifted their attention to the 'prosperity doctrine'. It argues that the economic crisis has contributed to the flourishing of these churches and that the shift in the economic message of the mainline groups is a survival strategy. Bibliogr., sum. [Journal abstract]
Mbon, Friday M. 1992: Brotherhood of the Cross and Star : a
new religious movement in Nigeria.Frankfurt am Main [etc.]:
Abstract: Contemporary Nigeria's most controversial new religious movement, known as Brotherhood of the Cross and Star (BCS), was founded in the late 1950s by Leader Olumba Olumba Obu (1918- ). The movement emerged spontaneously around Leader Obu's charismatic personality, beginning as it did as a prayer-cum-Bible-study group/healing home, with only a handful of people in search of physical healing through spiritual means. Today BCS has grown into an international body with thousands of adherents. The introduction explains the research objectives, scope, focus and methodology of the study. Ch. 1 presents a biography of Leader Obu, including his family and socioreligious background, as well as a discussion of the beginnings of BCS. Ch. 2 examines the BCS movement's structure and organization. Chapters 3 and 4 discuss Brotherhood beliefs and doctrines, practices and institutions. Ch. 5 shows how Brotherhoodism responds to African traditional culture, and how Leader Obu stands 'à cheval' on both African religiocultural belief systems and Christianity. Ch. 6 examines the movement's impact on Nigeria's politics, economy and social life in general, while ch. 7 discusses the movement's impact on contemporary Nigerian society and how society responds to it. Ch. 8 attempts a theoretical analysis of a selected number of issues emerging from the study
Notes: Tevens proefschrift Ottawa, 1986
Bibliogr.: p. -340. - Met bijl., index, noten
Mbuy, Tatah H. 1994: Sects secret societies and new
religious movements in modern Cameroon : (a pastoral challenge an
obstacle and to national unity).Bamenda: Newslink.
Abstract: Sects, secret societies and new religious movements are infiltrating Cameroon today. A good number of students, the elite, and jobless or 'searching' youth are victims of incessant confrontation with and 'conversion' to these phenomena. They are a pastoral challenge to the Church and a hindrance to national unity. This study indicates the impact and implications of sects, secret societies and new religious movements in Cameroon, examines the reasons for their existence and analyses their teachings. The following groups are discussed: Born Again and Deeper Life, Seventh Day Adventists, Jehovah Witnesses, Rosicrucianism (the Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Cricis (AMORC)), Churches of Christ, the Bahai faith, the Unification Church of Sun Myung Moon, Hare Krishna, and Apostolic Sects. Attention is also paid to the misunderstanding created by sects about the working of the Holy Spirit and the Bible
Notes: Bibliogr.: p. 96
Meyer, B. 1992: "If you are a devil, you are a witch
and, if you are a witch, you are a devil" : the integration of
'pagan' ideas into the conceptual universe of Ewe Christians in
southeastern Ghana. Journal of religion in Africa vol. 22, fasc. 2,
Abstract: In order to show that the ideas of mission church members are not as Westernized as has often been assumed but rather represent an 'African' synthesis opposed to the Africanization propagated by theologians, this article focuses on the members of the Evangelical Presbyterian Church (EP Church). The sphere of influence of this church is the Volta Region in southeast Ghana, which is inhabited by the Ewe. 'Abosam' (the missionaries' translation of 'Devil') plays a central role in the thinking of most Ewe Christians. He is understood as the Lord of the former gods and spirits and thereby confirms the reality of their existence. He integrates non-Christian spiritual beings, above all 'adzetcwo' (witches), into the conceptual universe of EP Church members. 'Abosam' thus serves as a boundary-defining and integrating figure. Through him the existence of what the missionaries intended to abolish is confirmed. Most church members fear the attacks of 'adzetcwo'. This is the reason why so many people feel attracted by pentecostal groups or the Bible Study and Prayer Fellowship (BSPF). By taking the threat of 'Abosam' and 'adze' (witchcraft) seriously, their reality, which is denied by church officials, is confirmed over and over. Bibliogr., notes, ref
Meyer, Birgit 1995: Translating the devil : an African
appropriation of pietist protestantism : the case of the Peki Ewe in
southeastern Ghana, 1847-1992.[S.l.: s.n.].
Abstract: This thesis deals with the local appropriation of Christianity in an African context, that of the Peki Ewe of southeastern Ghana. It follows a line that leads from the activities of the first missionaries of the Norddeutsche Missionsgesellschaft (NMG) among the Ewe in 1847, through the establishment of the Ewe Evangelical Presbyterian Church (EPC) and its formal independence from the mission in 1922, to the rise of independent churches after World War II and the secession of 'Agbelengor', the Lord's (Pentecostal) Church, from the mission church in 1959, ending with the present situation, where there are two conflicting EP Churches. The study is based on field research carried out in 1989 and 1991-1992
Notes: Proefschrift Universiteit van Amsterdam
Met lit. opg. en een samenvatting in het Nederlands
Meyer, Birgit 1995: 'Delivered from the powers of
darkness': confessions of satanic riches in Christian Ghana. Africa :
journal of the International African Institute vol. 65, no. 2, p.
236-255 : fig.
Abstract: Pentecostal Churches have recently become extremely popular in Ghana. Within these Churches reference is made frequently to the devil, who is associated with the non-Christian gods and ghosts as well as Western luxury goods. Present Ghanaian popular culture reveals a striking obsession with images of the devil and of evil. This article, which is based on fifteen months of research among the Ewe of Accra and Peki in the last four years, analyses some popular stories told in 'born again' circles about money received through a contract with the devil or one of his agents. It tries to establish the kind of evil that is denounced by means of the devil, and how, with the help of the notion of the devil, 'born again' Christians think about poverty and wealth. The author argues that collective fantasies around the devil have to be understood against the background of difficult socioeconomic conditions. The stories entail both a critique of the capitalist economy in the name of the precapitalist ideal of mutual family assistance and an opportunity to fantasize about things people cannot afford but nevertheless desire. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum. in English and French
Meyer, Birgit 1998: The power of money : politics, occult
forces, and pentecostalism in Ghana. African studies review : the
journal of the African Studies Association vol. 41, no. 3, p.
Abstract: This paper explains how Christianity, especially the pentecostal variant highly popular in southern Ghana, came to cast political discourse in religious terms. On the basis of an examination of a popular Ghanaian movie about a chief who indulges in ritual murder in order to generate wealth and power, the paper shows that in Ghana a public debate is going on about the (im)morality of power. In this debate, rumours about the occult sources of power and wealth form the flip side of politicians' claims of being linked with the divine. In distinction to established mission churches, pentecostalism takes such rumours about the threat of sorcery as seriously as the aim to turn Ghana into a Christian country. Presenting themselves as the sole members of society able to contain sorcery, pentecostalists claim to have the power to reveal the occult sources of those in power and subsequently to purify politics and politicians from occult traces and draw them closer to God. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum. in English and French
Meyer, Birgit 1998: 'Make a complete break with the past' :
memory and post-colonial modernity in Ghanaian Pentecostalist
discourse. Journal of religion in Africa vol. 28, no. 3, p.
Abstract: In Ghana while such groups in society as Roman Catholic and Protestant mission churches try to come to terms with local traditions and to reconcile old and new ideas in an attempt to develop a genuinely African synthesis, the Pentecostalists oppose this revaluation of tradition and culture. Their emphasis lies on the 'global' nature of this variant of Christianity and the need to break away from local traditions. Through an appeal to 'time' as an epistemological category, the Pentecostalists are able to create a rift between 'us' and 'them', between 'modern' and 'traditional' and between 'God' and the 'Devil'. To achieve this in Ghana, Pentecostalism engages in a dialectic of 'remembering' and 'forgetting'. However, it seems that most believers have difficulty in making a complete break. This article looks at how Pentecostalism allows them to address this ambivalent stance towards modernity. The specific Pentecostalist attitude towards the past is placed in the context of postcolonial debates about the importance of the 'African heritage' to national culture. The main focus in the article is the Evangelical Presbyterian Church (EPC) of Ghana, more specifically that among the Peki Ewe in the Volta Region. Bibliogr., notes, ref. (Another version of this article appears in: Memory and the postcolony : African anthropology and the critique of power, ed. by Richard Werbner, London [etc.], 1998, p. 182-208.)
Meyer, Birgit 1998: Commodities and the power of prayer :
Pentecostalist attitudes towards consumption in contemporary Ghana.
Development and change vol. 29, no. 4, p. 751-776.
Abstract: This article addresses the success of Pentecostalism, a global religious movement par excellence, throughout postcolonial Africa. It is based on fieldwork carried out among the Peki, who are part of the Ewe, in southeastern Ghana and Accra in 1990, 1991 and 1996. Investigating Pentecostalist views of and attitudes towards commodities, the author shows that Pentecostalists represent the modern global economy as enchanted and themselves as agents of disenchantment: only through prayer may commodities cease to act as 'fetishes' which threaten the personal integrity and identity of their owners. Pentecostalism creates modern consumers through a ritual of prayer, which helps them handle globalization and control foreign commodities in such a way that they can be consumed without danger. Through prayer, commodities cease to possess their owners; the latter are rather enabled to possess the former. Pentecostalism engages in globalization by enabling its members to consume products from the global market and by offering its followers fixed orientation points and a well-delimited moral universe within globalization's unsettling flows. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum
Meyer, Birgit 1999: Translating the devil : religion and
modernity among the Ewe in Ghana.Edinburgh: Edinburgh University
Abstract: This study deals with the local appropriation of Christianity in an African context, that of the Peki Ewe of southeastern Ghana. It follows a line that leads from the activities of the first missionaries of the Norddeutsche Missionsgesellschaft (NMG) among the Ewe in 1847, through the establishment of the Ewe Evangelical Presbyterian Church (EPC) and its formal independence from the mission in 1922, to the rise of independent churches after World War II and the secession of 'Agbelengor', the Lord's (Pentecostal) Church, from the mission church in 1959, ending with the present situation, where there are two conflicting EP Churches. The main argument of the study is that, for the Ewe, involvement with modernity goes hand in hand with new enchantment, rather than disenchantment, of the world. At the grassroots level, the study focuses on the image of the Devil, which the missionaries communicated to the Ewe through translation and which currently receives much attention in the Pentecostal churches. This image played and still plays a crucial role in the local appropriation of Christianity. The study is based on field research carried out in 1989 and 1991-1992
Notes: Oorspr. proefschrift Universiteit van Amsterdam, 1995
Bibliogr.: p. -260. - Met gloss., index, noten
Meyer, Birgit 2001: Prières, fusils et meurtre
rituel : le cinéma populaire et ses nouvelles figures du
pouvoir et du succès au Ghana. Politique africaine no. 82, p.
Abstract: Au Ghana tout comme au Nigeria, les films vidéo d'inspiration pentecôtiste connaissent un succès croissant. Cet article analyse l'évolution de ce cinéma populaire qui met en scène des figures du pouvoir et de la réussite sociale, longtemps marquées par la morale familiale "born-again". On observe un glissement de héros positifs dans des drames familiaux remplacés par des héros négatifs, qui tuent et s'allient aux pouvoirs occultes pour s'assurer la prospérité, glissement facilité selon l'auteur par l'apparition au Ghana d'une nouvelle sphère publique liée à la libéralisation et à la commercialisation des médias. Les films vidéo adoptent un style pentecôtiste qui révèle les prétentions à l'acquisition du pouvoir fondé sur la capacité de pénétrer ce qui n'est pas visible par d'autres moyens. Mis en avant, la transgression et l'excès tant dans les films vidéo que dans l'imagination populaire soulignent la transformation qui affecte les manières de parler du pouvoir et du succès. Le succès ne s'obtient pas seulement par une appropriation parasitaire des ressources étatiques, comme à l'époque où l'État était encore un acteur de l'économie nationale. Il doit être obtenu désormais principalement en se connectant à des réseaux mondialisés. Notes, réf., rés. en français et en anglais (p. 215)
Mijoga, Hilary B. P. 2000: Separate but same Gospel :
preaching in African Instituted Churches in southern Malawi.Blantyre:
Christian Literature Association in Malawi.
Notes: Bibliogr.: p. 195-199. - Met index, noten
Mohr, Matthias 1991: "Walking the political tightrope"
: Zionist responses to a climate of violence. Africana Marburgensia
vol. 24, no. 1, p. 47-60.
Abstract: There is no clear evidence in the relevant literature of Zionists taking an active part in politics in South Africa. Based on fieldwork in the Zulu township of KwaMashu (Durban) in 1990-1991, the author discusses the question of whether Zionists will be able to maintain their neutrality in the "new South Africa". He concludes that the increasing pressure evoked by a climate of violence and political insinuation leaves most Zionists feeling frightened and insecure. However, answers to the circumstances of life are still sought within the boundaries of the church community and rather than politics, it is the prosperity, survival and expansion of their church that seems to motivate many Zionists. At the same time, political movements are sure to put pressure on Zionists and it is mainly they who drive the Zionists to "walk the political tightrope". Ref
Moore, Henrietta L. and Todd Sanders 2001: Magical
interpretations, material realities : modernity, witchcraft and the
occult in postcolonial Africa.London [etc.]: Routledge.
Abstract: Witchcraft is alive and well in sub-Saharan Africa today both among the disenchanted and downtrodden as well as the educated elite. This volume sets out recent thinking on witchcraft in Africa, paying attention to variations in meanings and practices. It examines the way different people in different contexts are making sense of what witchcraft is and what it might mean. Contributions: Henrietta L. Moore and Todd Sanders: Magical interpretations and material realities: an introduction. Francis B. Nyamnjoh: Delusions of development and the enrichment of witchcraft discourses in Cameroon. Rosalind Shaw: Cannibal transformations: colonialism and commodification in the Sierra Leone hinterland. Misty L. Bastian: Vulture men, campus cultists and teenaged witches: modern magics in Nigerian popular media. Rijk van Dijk: Witchcraft and scepticism by proxy: Pentecostalism and laughter in urban Malawi. Jane Parish: Black market, free market: anti-witchcraft shrines and fetishes among the Akan. Susan Rasmussen: Betrayal or affirmation? : transformations in witchcraft technologies of power, danger and agency among the Tuareg of Niger. Todd Sanders: Save our skins: structural adjustment, morality and the occult in Tanzania. Isak Niehaus: Witchcraft in the new South Africa: from colonial superstition to postcolonial reality? Adam Ashforth: On living in a world with witches: everyday epistemology and spiritual insecurity in a modern African city (Soweto). Cyprian F. Fisiy and Peter Geschiere: Witchcraft, development and paranoia in Cameroon: interactions between popular, academic and State discourse
Notes: Met bibliogr., index, noten
Motala, M. B.1989: The relative influence of participation
in Zionist Church services on the emotional state of participants. In
Afro-Christian religion and healing in Southern Africa / ed. by G.C.
Oosthuizen ... [et al.]. - Lewiston, N.Y. [etc.] : Edwin Mellen
Press: (cop. 1989), p. 193-205. Pp. 193-205.
Abstract: This study investigates the relative effect of once-weekly participation in the Sunday services of an African Independent Church - the Zionist Christian Church (ZCC), and how this participation influences the emotional state termed 'affect'. In the Zionist Church, healing is directly associated with worship and with the practice of religious belief - a blend of traditional Zulu custom and the Christian doctrine of the Holy Spirit ('UMoya'). In healing, the congregation of the Zionist Church plays a supportive role. The church services have a catharsis function as confession, singing and dancing are encouraged. The subjects of the study were ten black, female domestic servants, working and residing separately from their families in the urban area of Durban (South Africa), for a minimum period of three years. In group A were five women who belonged to the Zion Christian Church; in group B were five women who belonged to Western mission churches. The findings suggest that participation in the once-weekly services of the Zionist Church has a positive effect on affect. Membership in the ZCC and participation in the services help individuals who are placed in an urban situation to adjust and not allow external circumstances to influence their emotions to too great an extent. Note
Muller, Carol 1994: Nazarite women, ritual performance, and
the construction of cultural truth and power. Current writing : text
and reception in Southern Africa vol. 6, no. 2, p. 127-138.
Abstract: The Church of the Nazarites was founded in about 1911 by Isaiah Shembe in the then Native Reserve of Inanda, northwest of Durban, South Africa. The female membership, which includes both young virgin girls and married, or widowed women, plays a central role in the daily and ritual life of the church. This paper examines Nazarite women's religious discourse and performance as mechanisms for the articulation of both the effects of political and gendered power upon individual women, and the articulation of power through the construction of a regime of religious truth. The author analyses three women's narratives collected while pursuing a field research project with the religious community, in both KwaZulu-Natal and Soweto. The narratives demonstrate the dual conceptualization of power as it is located on the peripheries: that is, the effects of centralized State power on the lives of individuals, and the articulation of personal and collective power by the politically marginalized. Bibliogr., notes, ref
Muller, Carol 1994: Pathways to the mountain top, icons of
spirituality in Nazarite women's song, dream narratives, and bead
work.Toronto: [African Studies Association].
Abstract: The Church of the Nazarites, also known as the followers of Shembe, differs from other churches in its hymn repertory, dance festivals, and ritual attire. Song, dance and dream narrative have been reconstructed by Nazarite women to include daily experiences of extreme bodily and material violation. They are one of several means used in South Africa to both understand and transform the nebulous 'culture of violence' endemic to black social life in the early 1990s, particularly in KwaZulu Natal. Such fostering of spaces of alterity channels violent action and responses by imagining an ideal social order which is culturally coherent. Central to the reimagining of this community are the metaphors of the path and its destination, the holy mountain. They are manifest in several domains as the physical connection to the spiritual realm, and infuse the religious discourse with a sense of affecting presence or iconicity. This paper examines 'the path' and 'the mountain' as icons in three Nazarite domains: songs and dance performance, dream narrative, and women's beadwork
Notes: Presented at the thirty-seventh annual meeting of the African Studies Association, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, November 3-6, 1994
Bibliogr.: bl. 21-22. - Met noten
Muller, Carol 1997: "Written" into the Book of
Life: Nazarite women's performance inscribed as spiritual text in
'Ibandla lamaNazaretha'. Research in African literatures : official
journal of the African Literature Committee of the African Studies
Association of America and the African Literatures Seminar of the
Modern Language Association vol. 28, no. 1, p. 3-14.
Abstract: The colonial confrontation between Western literacy (embodied in the Christian Bible) and Zulu oral and ritual practices has been fixed into the historical record by a group of Zulu-speaking women in South Africa who are members of the Church of the Nazarites ('Ibandla lamaNazaretha'). These women have transferred the power and value attached to a central tenet of mission Christian ideology - that Truth is contained in the written word - onto traditional Zulu ritual performance and attire. Through this transfer, they have textualized these traditional ritual spaces, so that performance can be quantified and, in spiritual terms, becomes equated with "doing good works". This "work" is measured, recorded and accounted for through the metaphor of "writing" one's name in the "Book of Life". This book is consulted at the heavenly gates by the "Angel of Heaven". Bibliogr., notes, ref
Muller, Carol A. 1999: Rituals of fertility and the
sacrifice of desire : Nazarite women's performance in South
Africa.Chicago [etc.]: University of Chicago Press.
Notes: Oorspr. uitg.: proefschrift
Bibliogr.: p. -305. - Met index, gloss., noten
Met CD-ROM: Rituals of fertility and the sacrifice of desire
Mwene, Batende 1986: Les pratiques symboliques dans les
communautés messianiques africaines : les cas de 'l'Eglise
nationale du Saint-Esprit' au Zaïre. Cahiers des religions
africaines vol. 20/21, no. 39/42, p. 417-428 : ill.
Abstract: Multiples et complexes, les communautés messianiques au Zaïre, communément appelées sectes, apparaissent comme de nouveaux modes d'expressions et de pratiques symboliques à caractère religieux dans le nouveau conditionnement socio-historique des adhérents. Le cas de l'Eglise nationale du Saint-Esprit, qui fonctionne en milieu urbain de Kinshasa, sert à fixer les idées sur le fonctionnement de ces communautés messianiques. L'auteur analyse quelques expressions et pratiques discursives inspirées par des références religieuses au sein de l'Eglise nationale du Saint-Esprit et étudie des représentations symboliques du 'cœur de l'homme' telles qu'elles sont véhiculées dans l'imaginaire collectif des adeptes. Réf
Naudé, Piet 1995: The Zionist Christian Church in
South Africa : a case-study in oral theology.Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin
Abstract: This book deals with the Zionist Christian Church in South Africa. It focuses on 'oral theology', i.e. the hymns and choruses which play a vital role in the Zionist churches. Part 1 discusses the epistemological importance of religious experience and the interpretation of religious experience in European, liberation, and African theologies. Part 2 comprises the expression of religious experiences in the form of transcribed hymns sung by the Itsani congregation of the St Engenas Zion Christian Church in Venda in Northern Transvaal. It deals with orality from a hermeneutical, social scientific and systematic theological perspective. In part 3 the methodology of part 1 (experience) and the initial interpretation of hymns in part 2 (hermeneutics) are brought into relation in the discussion of a 'local' Zionist theology in the from of a creedal formation. The role of the 'outsider theologian' is defined and conclusions on theological intercommunication and the problem of syncretism are drawn
Notes: Bibliogr.: p. -152. - Met index, noten
Ndiokwere, Nathaniel I. 1981: Prophecy and revolution : the
role of prophets in the independent African churches and in Biblical
Abstract: The basis of this study is the 'resemblance' between the world that gave rise to Israelite prophetism and the modern African situation in which the Independent Churches have emerged, and the influence of one upon the other. The proncipal movements considered include the 'Zionist', 'Ethiopian', and 'messianic' movements in Southern and Eastern Africa. These are followed by Kimbanguism in the former Congo, and the 'Aladura' in West Africa. The treatment is centred around the figure of the leaders or founders of the movements, namely the 'prophets'
Ngandu Nkashama, Pius 1990: Églises nouvelles et
mouvements religieux : l'exemple zaïrois.Paris:
Abstract: La floraison des mouvements religieux en Afrique ne saurait être à présent considérée comme un phénomène marginal ou une résurgence anachronique. Une analyse de ce phénomène permet de comprendre comment les sociétés africaines aujourd'hui appréhendent les problèmes auxquels elles sont confrontées et comment elles y répondent. L'auteur, originaire de la ville de Mbujimayi au Zaïre décrit les "Églises nouvelles" qui s'y développent et propose une interprétation des contradictions et des crises qui déchirent les sociétés africaines
Ogungbile, David O. 1997: Meeting point of culture and
health : the case of the Aladura Churches in Nigeria. Nordic journal
of African studies vol. 6, no. 1, p. 98-112.
Abstract: The Aladura brand of Christianity, which falls within the group of Independent Churches, has a long Yoruba tradition. The phenomenal growth of the Aladura Church in Nigeria is traceable to the successful and effective preferment of solutions to members' and clients' existential problems. This paper argues that the popularity gained by these churches through their healing ministry is due to their effective utilization of certain Yoruba cultural practices. The elements of Yoruba cultural values which serve as the bedrock of Aladura methods of healing are discussed using N. Smart's (1969) model of six dimensions: doctrinal (Yoruba belief in the multiplicities of spiritual beings), mythic (Yoruba traditional cosmogonic and cosmological myths), experiential (divine communication through spirit possession), ethical (Yoruba belief in taboos), social (Yoruba 'communitas', social life characterized by compound dwelling, mutual respect, cooperation, toleration, etc.) and ritual (rituals are the major functional and elaborate aspect of healing in Yoruba tradition). Bibliogr., notes, ref
Ohaeri, Jude U. 1998: Experience of dreams with manifest
content of food (food dreams) among 431 Nigerians. Psychopathologie
africaine : bulletin de la Société de Psychopathologie
et d'Hygiène Mentale de Dakar vol. 29, no. 1, p. 23-39 :
Abstract: Dreams with manifest content of food elements, or food dreams, have been reported as contributing to the intensification of psychological symptoms. Among the Yoruba of Nigeria, they are interpreted to connote adverse influence of supernatural forces. The author carried out a study among 431 Nigerians - students and government workers - in order to highlight the pattern and meaning attributed to food dreams among various ethnic groups, as well as the psychosocial factors associated with their responses. He found that food dreams were significantly more prevalent among southern groups than among those of the north. Yoruba and minority groups from the southeast were more likely to ascribe supernatural meaning to food dreams. There was also a relationship with membership of a Pentecostal church. In discussing the findings, the author uses Freudian and Jungian postulates to articulate the meaning of food dreams to the dreamer. In conclusion, he discusses the sociocultural and clinical implications of the study. Bibliogr., note, sum. in English and French
Ojo, M. A. 1988: The contextual significance of the
charismatic movements in independent Nigeria. Africa / International
African Institute vol. 58, no. 2, p. 175-192.
Abstract: This study examines the contextual significance of the charismatic movements which emerged in Nigeria in the 1970s, arguing that their rapid growth stemmed mainly from the fact that they offered avenues for expressing the Christian faith in a manner relevant to the situation in Nigeria. The charismatic movements originally arose among college students and university graduates in the early 1970s, emphasizing the pentecostal doctrines of baptism of the Holy Spirit and speaking in tongues as a means of revitalizing the lives of Christians. The study discusses the interdenominational Christian student organizations which provided the background to the emergence of the charismatic movements, the charismatic revival of the 1970s, the doctrinal emphasis and religious practices of the charismatic movements, the context of their social message, and the authenticity of contextualization. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum. in French
Ojo, M. A. 1988: Deeper Christian life ministry : a case
study of the charismatic movements in western Nigeria. Journal of
religion in Africa vol. 18, no. 2, p. 141-162.
Abstract: One of the most profound changes that have taken place in Nigerian Christianity since the Aladura movements in the first part of this century, is the emergence of charismatic movements in the 1970s. These originated from the introduction, in the early 1970s, of pentecostalism into the institutions of higher education. This paper deals with one such charismatic movement, the Deeper Christian Life Ministry, which was founded in Lagos in 1973 by William Folorunso Kumuyi. Attention is paid to the major role of Kumuyi in Deeper Life, the establishment of the Higher Institution Programme of Deeper Life, later renamed Deeper Life Campus Fellowship, the importance of literature in Deeper Life, and developments since 1982, when the organization moved form a Bible study group to a denominational church. Notes, ref
Ojo, Matthews A.1998: Sexuality, marriage and piety among
Charismatics in Nigeria. In Rites of passage in contemporary
Africa : interaction between Christian and African traditional
religions / ed. by James L. Cox . - Cardiff : Cardiff Academic Press:
(cop. 1998), p. 180-197. Pp. 180-197.
Abstract: The most remarkable development within Nigerian Christianity to date is the emergence of the Charismatic movements in the 1970s. This chapter examines the interrelationship between sexuality and piety among Charismatics in Nigeria. The author argues that regulations about sexual behaviour among Charismatics in Nigeria are part of the complex religious revitalization Charismatics are undertaking within Nigerian Christianity. Such regulations are aimed at transforming the individual, and challenging the social assumptions of society. Conversionist groups, such as the Charismatic movements, often attempt to encompass the whole life of their members, and as such the regulations concerning sexual and matrimonial conduct are institutional means of achieving dominance over members' lives. The author further argues that the attention Charismatics devote to sexual conduct and marriage among themselves reflects the African traditional religious concern for communality and well-being in society. Bibliogr., notes, ref
Olayiwola, D. O. 1989: The social impact of new religious
movements on contemporary Yoruba life : the Aladura as a case in
point. Africana Marburgensia vol. 22, no. 2, p. 33-44.
Abstract: This paper analyses the social impact of new religious movements generally, and the Aladura Movement, in Yorubaland, Nigeria, in particular. The author examines several factors influencing the impact of the movement, namely economic, sociocultural, anthropological, political, and psychological factors. The author concludes that the practice of utilizing traditional cultural elements for evangelization constituted the main springboard for the rapid spread of the Aladura Movement and, consequently, its social impact. Notes, ref
Olayiwola, David O. 1996: Excitability at worship : a study
of joyfulness in African Christianity. Africana Marburgensia vol. 29,
no. 1/2, p. 40-55.
Abstract: Using the approach of dialogical historiography, the author considers excitability at worship in African Independent Churches (AICs), specifically the Celestial Church of Christ or the "Cele", as it is known in Nigeria, as a case study of inculturation or indigenization of Christianity in Africa. He notes that the members of this church constitute communities of joyful worshippers. This joyful worship, though biblical, has Yoruba traditional antecedents. In traditional religious worship, music making is an integral part and the musical instruments used during African traditional religious worship are very significant for understanding joyfulness at worship in African Christianity. Another strand in the dialogue between Christianity and traditional religion has to do with the phenomena of dreams, visions and prophecies, which are interpreted by the prophets of the Church and whose purpose is to reveal the future. These can be likened to the divination poems recited by Ifa diviners in the traditional context. It must be stressed, however, that the AIC movement represents a unique initiative and activity of its own. Notes, ref
Omenyo, Cephas N. 2002: Charismatic churches in Ghana and
contextualization. Exchange : bulletin de littérature des
églises du Tiers Monde vol. 31, no. 3, p. 252-277.
Abstract: This essay on Charismatic churches and contextualization in Ghana begins by examining how culture can be perceived. It uses the Akan world view as a typical example of Ghanaian/African world view. It then looks at the Akan concept of salvation as a background to the adaptation sought by Charismatics. It looks at the transmission of Christianity by Western missionaries and its failure in the direction of contextualization. It discusses the African Initiated Churches (AICs) as the earliest example of a Christian movement that sought to adapt the gospel to the African situation, which is the essence of contextualization. The author focuses on the contemporary Charismatic movement, which is the most dynamic religious development in Ghana and examines how it has endeavoured to adapt itself to the sociocultural context in Ghana. Notes, ref
Onderstal, Rebecca 1998: The power of prayer : a case-study
of a Ghanaian charismatic church in Amsterdam Southeast.[S.l.:
Notes: Doctoraalscriptie Rijksuniversiteit Leiden
Bibliogr.: p. -138. - Met noten
Oomen, Mar and Jos Palm 1994: Geloven in de Bijlmer : over
de rol van religieuze groeperingen.Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis.
Abstract: Cultureel-antropologische studie over de verscheidenheid aan geloofsbeleving in de Bijlmermeer en de mogelijke betekenis van religieuze groepen voor het project Sociale Vernieuwing in deze wijk
Het doel van dit onderzoek is inzicht te geven in de omvang, de samenstelling, de betekenis voor leden en de maatschappelijke functie van een aantal voor de Bijlmermeer, een wijk in Amsterdam-Zuidoost in Nederland, kenmerkende religieuze groeperingen. Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd in opdracht van de Adviescommissie Sociale Vernieuwing van het ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken. De auteurs onderzochten de religieuze participatie in de wijk door interviews af te nemen en activiteiten van religieuze groeperingen bij te wonen. De diensten van vijfentwintig religieuze groeperingen werden bezocht en hun activiteiten in kaart gebracht. Van vijf groeperingen werd een case study gemaakt: de Ghanese Church of Pentecost, de multiculturele Pinkstergemeente, de Gemeente der Zevende Dags Adventisten, de Surinaams-christelijke Evangelische Broedergemeente en de Surinaams-islamitische moskee Taibah
Notes: Met lit. opg
Oosthuizen, G. C.1989: Indigenous healing within the
context of the African Independent Churches. In Afro-Christian
religion and healing in Southern Africa / ed. by G.C. Oosthuizen ...
[et al.]. - Lewiston, N.Y. [etc.] : Edwin Mellen Press: (cop. 1989),
p. 67-90. Pp. 67-90.
Abstract: This paper examines the ways in which traditional healing methods find expression within the indigenous/independent churches in Africa, especially the Zionist Churches in Southern Africa. The office of prophet/prayer healer in the African Independent Churches fulfils a much felt need because of the traditional society's age-old role of the diviner and herbalist, for which the missionary or pastor in Christianity had no substitute. Nothing is more responsible for the rapid growth of African Independent Churches than the fact that they take the negative forces of the African cosmology seriously and that the problems they see as real concern witchcraft, sorcery, demons and evil spirits, while historic churches in general have no rituals to counteract the effects of witchcraft and sorcery. There are a number of parallels between the calling and activities of a diviner and a prophet, which include diagnosing and healing illnesses, establishing causes of misfortune, interpreting dreams, predicting future events, and receiving visions. The diviner reinstates the importance of the ancestral spirits in the lives of many, and so do a large number of prophets. Furthermore, both work under the injunctions of the metaphysical world: ancestors in the case of diviners, 'the Spirit' and/or ancestors in the case of prophets
Oosthuizen, G. C.1989: Baptism in the context of the
African Independent Churches. In Afro-Christian religion and
healing in Southern Africa / ed. by G.C. Oosthuizen ... [et al.]. -
Lewiston, N.Y. [etc.] : Edwin Mellen Press: (cop. 1989), p. 137-188.
Abstract: The author provides a detailed discussion of baptism within both the historic Christian tradition (from the earliest times onward) and African Independent Churches. The African Independent Churches have many baptisms for a whole range of needs. Baptism is a rite of initiation, but it is also a rite of purification, healing and repentance. The author discusses baptism in the Zionist context; symbols in the African context; Carl Jung's concept of the 'collective unconscious'; baptism as symbolizing a transition from death to life; baptism in historical perspective; baptism as an initiation rite; magical conceptions with regard to baptism; baptism in postapostolic times; infant baptism; the development of baptism in ecclesiastical-historical perspective; baptism outside the established churches; the 'opus operatum' approach; the dogmatic evaluation of baptism; liturgical aspects of baptism; the ritual opening of the ears; the liturgical use and meaning of salt during baptism; consecrated water; the role of the circle and the flag during baptist ceremonies; baptism in the mission situation. The author concludes with a discussion of baptism at the Durban North Beach (South Africa) and its various connotations. Note
Oosthuizen, G. C. and K. Poewe 1990: Die charismatiese
beweging in Suid-Afrika met verwysing na sy agtergrond in die
Die charismatiese beweging as 'n fenomeen in Suid-Afrika. Tydskrif vir geesteswetenskappe jg. 30, nr. 2, p. 129-134, 134-144.
Abstract: Die eerste artikel beskryf die ontstaan van die Pinksterbeweging in Amerika en van die swart Pinkstergemeente in Suid-Afrika. Die Pentakostalisme is die voorloper van die moderne charismatiese beweging. Die artikel ondersoek raakpunte en parallelle tussen swart en blanke charismatiese kerke in Suid-Afrika en in Amerika. Die tweede artikel beskryf die charismatiese bewegings in Suid-Afrika. Die oorweënd blanke charismatiese beweging het vertroue verloor in die tradisionele christendom en probeer om belangrike fasette, wat versink geraak het, soos die betekenis van die Heilige Gees, uit te lig. Die charismatiese beweging onder swartes word feitlik totaal geïgnoreer terwyl hierdie beweging nog hand oor hand toeneem. Die vraag is: sal die swart en blanke charismatiese bewegings in Suid-Afrika in die toekoms nader na mekaar toe beweeg, of is die swart beweging te verinheemsd vir sodanige kontak? Bronnelys, samevatting in Engels
Oosthuizen, Gerhardus C. 1975: Pentecostal penetration into
the Indian community in metropolitan Durban, South Africa.Durban:
Human Sciences Research Council.
Abstract: While the traditional 'mainstream' churches make little headway, Pentecostalism is fast growing among Indians in Metropolitan Durban. In this wide-ranging study - including an analysis of the existential situation of the Indian community - of a rapidly growing Pentecostalism the author demonstrates how this movement in its life and organisation has matched its message to the needs of many insecure people and at the same time he makes theological and sociological assessments of its impact. the study is divided into nine chapters: With chapter 1 serving as a general introduction, chapter 2 concentrates on the Durban Indian Community with the general and particular reasons relevant to the growht of Indian Pentecostal churches, chapter 3 on the Pentecostal phenomenon, while chapter 4 deals with the Pentecostal church structures, chapter 5 with various internal issues, chapter 6 with the leaders, chapter 7 with theological issues, chapter 8 with healing, and chapter 9 with a sociological assessment, followed by the conclusion
Notes: Bibliogr.: p. -356
Oosthuizen, Gerhardus C. 1976: The theology of a
South-African messiah : an analysis of the hymnal of "The church
of the Nazarites".Leiden [etc.]: Brill.
Abstract: The hymnal of the Church of the Nazarites was published in 1940 in Zulu. Most of these hymns were composed by Isaiah Shembe (1867-1935), the founder of the Church of the Nazarites. The hymns should be considered as the catechism of the movement and can give an insight into its theology. The are strong syncretistic tendencies, a mixing of Zulu religion, Judaism and the Christian religion. The A. has in this book attempted an analysis of these hymns, in which he sets forth the various elements that have gone into their composition aqnd outlines the resulting theology. 86 of the hymns and songs have been translated and appear in the appendix
Notes: Fotomechanische herdr. van 1e dr.: 1967
Oosthuizen, Gerhardus C. 1989: Afro-Christian religion and
healing in Southern Africa.Lewiston, N.Y. [etc.]: Edwin Mellen
Abstract: This book brings together papers from a workshop organized by the South African National Congress of Psychiatrists in January 1987 and papers from a symposium at the Natal Medical School in May 1986, plus a few other relevant essays. The work presents the results of interdisciplinary research and fieldwork among black South Africans. The aim is to inform the reader about African medical practices as they are found among traditional healers and members of the African Independent Churches. Healing, contextualized by possession cults, traditional practitioners, and African Independent Churches, is holistic. It makes statements simultaneously about the individual, the kin community, the neighbourhood, and the modern industrial world. The syncretistic aspects of Africanized Christianity and new religions parallel perceived individual and social fragmentation. The first section of the book presents papers on traditional African healing practices in southern Africa and the ways in which they are preserved in contemporary society. Part two introduces the healing practices of African Independent Churches. Part three is concerned with Zionist healing and other Independent Church procedures. The final section raises questions about the relationship between traditional African healing, the healing practices of African Independent Churches and Western psychotherapy
Notes: Met bibliogr., gloss., ind., noten
Oosthuizen, Gerhardus C. 1992: The healer-prophet in
Afro-Christian churches.Leiden [etc.]: Brill.
Abstract: Apart from the mainline, Pentecostal and Zionist Churches, there are different types of African Independent/Indigenous Churches (AIC). The largest section among the more than 4000 denominations and eight million adherents came into the AIC during the past thirty years, mainly from traditional African religious backgrounds. Central in the AIC is the Church's healing ministry. The important role of the diviner in traditional society has been replaced by that of the prophet in the AIC. This book deals with the role of the healer prophet in the AIC in South and southern Africa. It concentrates mainly on metropolitan Durban and surrounding areas and on the Rand, especially Soweto, but a number of prophets from the Transkei, the Free State, Lesotho, Swaziland, Bophuthatswana and others parts of Natal were also interviewed. Contents: 1. Background to this theme - 2. The call of the AIC healer - 3. Healing methods of the prophet - 4. Traditional African explanation and treatment of diseases - 5. The task of the prophet concerning demons, demon possession and evil spirits - 6. "Baptism" as a purification ritual in the AIC - 7. Diviner/prophet parallel
Notes: Met lit. opg., index
Oosthuizen, Gerhardus C.1999: Indigenous Christianity and
the future of the church in South Africa. In Religion and
social transformation in southern Africa / ed.: Thomas G. Walsh,
Frank Kaufmann. - St. Paul, Minn. : Paragon House: (1999), p.
157-173. Pp. 157-173.
Abstract: The African Independent/Indigenous Church (AIC) movement in South Africa has been ignored throughout most of the 20th century. Distinguishing between the Ethiopian, the Zionist and the Apostolic chuches, the present author describes the positive influences of traditional culture and religion on the AICs, and their role in bringing together the modern/individualism and traditional/community dichotomy. He also describes the role of the independent and indigenous churches in reconciliation and healing, in mediating urbanization and, finally, in bridging the interethnic cleavages of the country. Ref
Oshitelu, G. A. 2000: The trends and development of
orthodox and Pentecostal Churches in Yorubalalnd. Orita : Ibadan
journal of religious studies vol. 32, no. 1/2, p. 100-114 :
Abstract: Data on the number of churches in six Yoruba-speaking states - Lagos, Oyo, Osun, Ogun, Ondo and Ekiti - in Nigeria in the period before 1960, from 1960 to 1980, and from 1981 to 1997, indicate a tremendous increase in the establishment of churches after 1981. The phenomenal increase in the number of churches, in particular in the 1990s, is a multidimensional phenomenon, with both positive and negative aspects. Especially noticeable is the emergence of neo-Pentecostal or "prosperity" churches as they are often sarcastically called, attributable amongst others to the economic depression in Nigeria. Like their predecessors, the independent or indigenous African churches known in Yoruba as Aladura Churches, the neo-Pentecostal churches are also founded by Africans, for Africans. Many Yoruba attend the Pentecostal churches for prosperity, blessings or miracles, and there is a strong belief that these churches provide essential spiritual resources to help people fulfill life's destiny, regardless of education or social status. Ref
Oshun, C. O. 1983: The pentecostal perspective of the
Christ Apostolic Church. Orita vol. 15, no. 2, p. 105-114.
Abstract: This Christ Apostolic Church is based in Nigeria, with branches in several West African countries and Western Europe. Its genesis, and pentecostal beliefs and practices in Nigeria are described. Notes
Ositelu, Rufus O. O. 2002: African Instituted Churches :
diversities, growth, gifts, spirituality and ecumenical understanding
of African Initiated Churches.Münster [etc.]: Lit Verlag.
Notes: Bibliogr.: p. 215-225. - Met noten
Otayek, René 1999: Dieu dans la cité :
dynamiques religieuses en milieu urbain ouagalais.Bordeaux: Centre
d'étude d'Afrique noire.
Abstract: Ouagadougou est aujourd'hui une capitale de près d'un million d'habitants et sa population double tous les dix ans. Cette croissance appelle une gestion ambitieuse et volontariste, d'autant plus nécessaire que la décentralisation en cours au Burkina Faso depuis 1993 a donné aux communes urbaines de larges compétences. Dans ce contexte, les institutions religieuses s'imposent comme des pièces importantes du dispositif de la gestion communautaire: elles se posent en interlocuteurs privilégiés des administrations centrales et des communes; elles revendiquent le statut d'intermédiaire entre celles-ci et les populations; elles assurent la transition de l'ordre rural à l'ordre urbain en promouvant des schèmes alternatifs de reconstruction identitaire. Cet ouvrage collectif s'organise en deux parties. Dans la première partie, 'Dynamiques religieuses et scène politique locale', sont regroupés les articles suivants: Dynamiques religieuses et gestion communale par temps de décentralisation: le religieux comme analyseur de la politique urbaine (René Otayek); Secteurs sanitaires confessionnel et public: quelle articulation? (Raymond Monné); Réseaux confessionnels de développement, pouvoirs locaux et décentralisation. Esquisse d'un modèle d'interprétation général (Mahamadou Diawara). Sommaire de la deuxième partie, 'Églises et recompositions identitaires': Quête de guérison, conversion, évangélisation: groupes charismatiques et Églises pentecôtistes face au Mal (André Soubeiga); Religion et identité ethnique. La première "Église yorouba" de Ouagadougou (Pascal Rouamba); Du rural à l'urbain. L'Église des Assemblées de Dieu au Burkina Faso (Pierre-Joseph Laurent). L'ouvrage se termine par quelques repères démographiques: Citadins et religions au Burkina Faso (Jean-Claude Barbier)
Notes: Met noten
Owoeye, S. A. 1998: A scientific analysis of the Apostolic
Church administrative machinery in Nigeria. Africana Marburgensia
vol. 31, no. 1/2, p. 37-47 : fig.
Abstract: In 1931 the Faith Tabernacle congregation in Nigeria became the Apostolic Church, a Nigerian assembly of a British pentecostal church. The Church's administrative structure complies with essential elements of the Weberian ideal bureaucracy. Hierarchical authority is prominent in the Apostolic governmental structure. There are four different levels of administration: the assembly, the section, the district, and the area, and seven offices, in order of descending hierarchy: apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors, teachers, elders, and deacons. The Apostolic Church Nigeria relies mostly on God's directives through prophecies before those at the helm of administrative affairs take their decisions. The Apostolic Church does not embrace episcopacy or congregationalism but prefers concentration of power at the apex of the administrative machinery. This highly centralized system has probably accounted for the minimal schisms in the organization. Moreover, the fact that the loyalty of members is not to a founder or general overseer but to Christ and his representatives has enhanced the Church's cohesion. Ref
Owoeye, S. A. 1998: Prophetess Adedeji Taiwo : a decade of
healing and prophecy in Nigeria. Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere :
Schriftenreihe des Kölner Instituts für Afrikanistik No.
56, p. 179-192.
Abstract: Bola Adedeji Taiwo of the Last Days Miracle Revival Church has within the last decade stormed the prophetic, healing and evangelistic world of Nigeria. Born in 1950 at Ilesa and popularly known as Mama Tolu or 'Sako-Igbala', Bola Esho (Adedeji after her marriage in 1981) was converted in 1977 and was called into prophetic ministry by a series of visions. The author further describes her acceptance of the call, the beginning of her ministry, her prophetic and divine healing activities, and her persecution. Bibliogr., notes, ref
Papini, Robert and Irving Hexham 2002: The catechism of the
Nazarites and related writings.Lewiston, N.Y. [etc.]: Edwin Mellen
Notes: Met bijl., noten
Parish, Jane 1999: The dynamics of witchcraft and
indigenous shrines among the Akan. Africa : journal of the
International African Institute vol. 69, no. 3, p. 426-447 :
Abstract: This article shows how contemporary witchcraft discourses amongst the Akan of Ghana are reflective of an ongoing autocritique of modernity and tradition among different generations of shrine-goers and Pentecostals, amid a series of self-reflexive speculations about sociability and consumption. The article concentrates on ideas of conspicuous consumption among young people and the attitudes of older members to it. It highlights the way the evil traits of modernity and tradition are articulated through witchcraft discourses at antiwitchcraft shrines, currently found in the Brong-Ahafo Region. The article is based on fieldwork carried ou in Dormaa-Ahenkro between 1990 and 1991. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum. in English and French
Pilaszewicz, S. 1992: The heritage of traditional African
religions in Afro-Christian churches. Africana bulletin no. 40, p.
Abstract: The emergence and development of Afro-Christian churches constitutes the latest stage of African Christianity. Such "independent" or - less correct - "separatist" churches developed from Anglican, Lutheran and other Protestant churches, and less commonly on the basis of the Roman Catholic church, through separation from missionary churches or through internal divisions. Their number is estimated at more than 7,000 and they are said to group some fifteen million members. The author looks at the origins and characteristics of Afro-Christian churches and gives several examples of religious adaptation involving the cult of the ancestors, polygamy, and the role of women in controlling rituals and cults. Following B.G.M. Sundkler (1964), he divides Afro-Christian churches into two types: independent churches that split from missionary churches on the initiative of African priests dissatisfied with European paternalism ("Ethiopian" churches) and prophetic churches established as a result of the activities of clairvoyants (Zionist churches in South Africa and "praying" churches in Nigeria, known as Aladura). In addition he identifies a category of Afro-Christian churches drawing inspiration from a more positive ideology, including those Afro-Christian churches which regard themselves as the discoverers of true Christianity, as well as a number of degenerated churches featuring dishonest healers, sham prophets and despots claiming to be superhuman. Ref
Pillay, G. J. 1991: Bethesda Temple among Indian South
Africans. Journal of religion in Africa vol. 21, fasc. 3, p.
Abstract: Concentrated in the province of Natal, South Africa, and in some of the Transvaal and Cape Province suburbs, are over 80 congregations which belong to the Bethesda movement. This Christian movement with 35,000 members, made up almost entirely of Indian South Africans, was founded in 1931 in Durban. It is affiliated to the Full Gospel Church, a Pentecostal denomination. In fifty years, it has grown from an obscure independent movement to a denomination in its own right with local and international links. This article examines the history of Bethesda, the social impact it has had within the Indian community in South Africa, its socioreligious setting, and its theological ethos. Bethesda was organized around its founder, J.F. Rowlands, a charismatic pastor and innovative organizer. The actual evangelistic work, however, was mainly undertaken by the members themselves. Lay responsibility was one of the key factors that influenced the growth and development of Bethesda. Furthermore, Bethesda managed to check too rapid cultural transition by incorporating both traditional and Western elements in the life of the church. When the 'kutum', the Indian traditional joint-family system, gradually broke down, Rowlands and the Indian leaders of Bethesda took over the family role. Conversion had a direct class implication. Whatever remnants of caste mentality still existed, at conversion all were one. Finally, Hindu reactions to Bethesda and Bethesda influence on the local Hindu community are discussed. Notes, ref
Pillay, Gerald J. and G. C. Oosthuizen 1992: Religion and
the future : essays in honour of prof. G.C. Oosthuizen.Pretoria: HSRC
Abstract: The authors of this Festschrift were asked to address, from their vantage point, the theme 'religion and the future'. The first five chapters, by Ninian Smart, Martin Prozesky, J.P. Mostert, Åke Hultkrantz and J.S. Cumpsty, deal with the task of religion today and the challenges that religions face in a changing world. These essays include the perspectives of the sociology and philosophy of religion, comparative religion, the history of religion and 'empirical' ethics. Donald McGavran presents an evangelical understanding of the future of Christianity and its relation to other religions. Gerald J. Pillay also deals with Christianity and the critical task of making its claims about freedom square with its understanding of faith. Harold W. Turner discusses the religious and social significance of the new religious movements and the role these movements can play in interfaith relations in the future. The chapters by Irving Hexham and Bongani Mazibuko deal with two aspects of Christianity in South Africa: the former with the significance of the Charismatic churches for Christianity among Afrikaners; the latter with the kind of theological education that will be required for a plural society such as South Africa's. The last chapter, by Hans-Jürgen Becken, presents insights into the spiritual and religious vitality of the African independent churches
Notes: Met bibliogr. van G.C Oosthuizen: p. 205-208. - Lit.opg
Poewe, Karla 1993: Theologies of black South Africans and
the rhetoric of peace versus violence. Canadian journal of African
studies vol. 27, no. 1, p. 43-65.
Abstract: Using W. Hollenweger's intercultural theological approach, which focuses on building a bridge between oral and written theologies, this article examines black liberation theologies and the rhetoric of peace versus violence in South Africa. It shows that the difference between informal and rhetorical violence in South Africa parallels that between oral and written liberation theologies. Oral and written liberation theologies rest on different epistemologies and ontologies, on different relationships to experience, and on different patterns of thought. Oral liberation theologians of the African Independent Churches and charismatic independent churches generally experience violence, find it abhorrent, and abjure it. By contrast, written liberation theologians constitute the reality of violence in terms of simplistic Marxist oppositions, independently of individual experiences. Consequently, violence is what these liberation theologians say it is. Any other violence, though it occurs, is rhetorically invisible. The article is based on fieldwork carried out in the summers of 1986, 1987, and 1989. Nine major charismatic independent churches and, especially, the Nazarite African Independent Church, were looked at closely, but liberation theologians within the mainline churches were also interviewed. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum. in French
Probst, P. 1989: The letter and the spirit: literacy and
religious authority in the history of the Aladura movement in western
Nigeria. Africa : journal of the International African Institute vol.
59, no. 4, p. 478-495 : fig.
Abstract: The Yoruba word 'aladura', meaning 'one who prays', generally refers to a set of churches that formed a powerful religious movement among the Yoruba of western Nigeria during the first decades of this century. This article examines how the written word was perceived and experienced within the Aladura movement in the context of the Christian colonial order and it considers whether and how this experience has influenced people's actions and religious behaviour. Focusing mainly on the Church of the Lord, one of three main churches of the Aladura movement, the author shows that many conflicts within the movement centred on the specific features of writing and print. In particular, the issue of the Bible as a fixed text acted as an instrument for defining and controlling religious authority in a changing social environment. It was a conflict that can be understood as the opposition between the 'letter' and the 'spirit', symbolizing two distinct religious concepts that came into collision. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum. in French
Prud'homme, C. 1989: Christianisme et sociétés
africaines : action et réaction. Mondes en développement
t. 17, no. 65, p. 73-82.
Abstract: Rés.: Pour mesurer l'impact du christianisme sur les sociétés africaines une approche en termes d'actions et de réactions réciproques s'impose. La mission chrétienne inscrit d'abord son action dans le cadre des contacts généraux entre l'Occident et l'Afrique. Elle apporte, outre le message spécifiquement religieux, un projet global de civilisation qui implique une transformation du milieu dans son ensemble. Mais la reproduction du modèle visé initialement se heurte sur le terrain à des résistances. La stratégie doit s'adapter aux réponses autochtones, pour s'insérer dans la réalité familiale sociale ou politique (exemple de Madagascar). Il en résulte sur le long terme des formes imprévisibles d'acculturation que l'on peut illustrer notamment par les mutations apportées dans la conception du temps, de l'espace, la distinction entre spirituel et temporel. Le christianisme exerce ainsi une action déterminante pour introduire dans les sociétés africaines la rationalité occidentale, mais en ménageant des zones ou des comportements (rites) qui permettent aux Africains de réinvestir dans le christianisme, orthodoxe ou non, leurs propres valeurs. Les communautés de base, les mouvements charismatiques et prophétiques, les églises dissidentes constituent la manifestation la plus spectaculaire de la réappropriation du christianisme occidental par les Africains. Le christianisme et les cultures 'traditionnelles' sortent définitivement remodelées par ce va-et-vient incessant. Notes, réf., rés. aussi en anglais (p. 16) et en espagnol (p. 24)
Ranger, Terence, Olufemi Vaughan, and A. H. M. Kirk-Greene
1993: Legitimacy and the State in twentieth-century Africa :
essays in honour of A.H.M. Kirk-Greene.Basingstoke [etc.]: Macmillan
Abstract: This book is offered to Tony Kirk-Greene as a tribute to his research and teaching in West African studies at the University of Oxford. It examines the ways in which the rulers of Africa have sought to legitimate their authority, both in their own eyes and in those of their subjects. It contains the following contributions: Purity and exotica in legitimating the empire: cultural constructions of gender, sexuality and race (Helen Callaway) - The invention of tradition revisited: the case of colonial Africa (Terence Ranger) - Garveyism, Akinpelu Obisesan and his contemporaries: Ibadan, 1920-22 (Gavin Williams) - Decolonisation and legitimation in Nigeria (Olufemi Vaughan) - The demise of indirect rule in the emirates of northern Nigeria (A.M. Yakubu) - Christianity, colonial legitimacy and the rise of nationalist politics in northern Nigeria (Niels Kastfelt) - 'Power in the name of Jesus': social transformation and Pentecostalism in western Nigeria 'revisited' (Ruth Marshall) - Reappraising postcolonial geopolitics: Europe, Africa and the end of the Cold War (Daniel C. Bach) - Postscript: legitimacy, civil society and the return of Europe (Terence Ranger, Olufemi Vaughan) - A.H.M. Kirk-Greene: a select bibliography (Shehu Othman)
Notes: Bibliogr.: p. 267-281. - Met index, noten
Ray, Benjamin C. 1993: Aladura Christianity: a Yoruba
religion. Journal of religion in Africa vol. 23, fasc. 3, p.
Abstract: Aladura Christianity among the Yoruba of Nigeria is a distinctive form of Christianity that bears the full imprint of Yoruba traditional religion. This paper examines the nature and extent of this Yoruba 'imprint'. While rejecting most of the 'pagan' belief content of the indigenous religious environment, the founders of the Aladura churches retained two fundamental elements: the belief in invisible spiritual forces, especially malevolent spiritual powers, and the belief in the efficacy of ritual action. Most of the other Yoruba features depend heavily on these two elements. Other features examined in this article are the construction of ritual space, the function of revelation (dreams, visions, prophecies), the meaning of ritual symbols, and the traditions about the founders of the churches. The author indicates how each of these elements is tied into the wider framework of invisible spiritual beings and efficacious ritual. Notes, ref
Rosny, Éric d. 1992: L'Afrique des guérisons.Paris:
Abstract: Les Africains vivent une période de leur histoire particulièrement inconfortable, fomentatrice de maladie, où il faut trouver un équilibre dans l'appartenance à deux types de sociétés, à certains égards incompatibles. Même là où les initiations coutumières ont disparu, il est étonnant de constater à quel point les mécanismes sociaux fonctionnent comme par la force acquise. L'adhésion à une seule forme de médecine laisserait insensible la face éclairée par l'autre culture. Deux "versants" de la médecine populaire font l'objet de ce livre: le côté des guérisseurs traditionnels, illustré par l'exemple des `nganga' au Cameroun, et celui des rituels thérapeutiques au sein des Églises messianiques, des sectes et des mouvements prophétiques africains d'inspiration chrétienne. L'auteur, jésuite français, est au Cameroun depuis 1957. Il a passé sept ans (1975-1982) à Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)
Notes: Met bijl., noten
Schiltz, Marc 2002: A Yoruba tale of marriage, magic,
misogyny and love. Journal of religion in Africa vol. 32, no. 3, p.
Abstract: In this paper the author approaches the increased prominence of witchcraft-sorcery fears in postcolonial Nigeria and the attraction of Pentecostal Christianity among the Yoruba through the personal experiences of Délé Adébísí, a long-time Nigerian friend and former resarch assistant with whom he corresponded over three decades. From one perspective, Délé's accounts of witchcraft-sorcery incidents contain an abundance of what one may call text-book illustrations of Yoruba people's representation of evil and its mystical and human agencies in the modern world. From another perspective, however, Délé's texts are chronicles of a real life drama in which he plays the tragic hero's role. As a storyteller, Délé recalls events in which actors' virtues, vices, and emotions constantly mirror our own experiences of what people can turn out to be as they progress through life. In Délé's case the author perceives such a progression in his shift from a virtue-centred Catholic upbringing in rural Is.éyin to a more prayer/power-centred aládúrà-Pentecostalism in Lagos, when recently the spectres of 'mágùn' sorcery and witchcraft began to close in on his marriage, livelihood and health. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum
Schoffeleers, J. M. 1991: Ritual healing and political
acquiescence: the case of the Zionist Churches in Southern Africa.
Africa : journal of the International African Institute vol. 61, no.
1, p. 1-25.
Abstract: This article first establishes that the Zionist Churches in South Africa - like healing churches elsewhere - are without exception politically acquiescent. It then defines healing as the root cause of the lack of political action on the part of South Africa's Zionist Churches. Evidence indicates that political acquiescence is not a property of ritual healing alone, but that it characterizes all three healing systems in South Africa - the biomedical, the Zionist, and the traditional. The reason for this is that all three healing systems tend to individualize, and thereby depoliticize, problems which more often than not are political. Healing systems mediate between the personal and the politico-jural domain by means of corrective action at the microlevel; critical politics do the same by means of corrective action at the macrolevel. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum. in English and French
Shorter, Aylward and Joseph N. Njiru 2001: New religious
movements in Africa.Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa.
Notes: Met noten
Simpson, Anthony1998: Memory and becoming chosen other:
fundamentalist elite-making in a Zambian Catholic mission school. In
Memory and the postcolony : African anthropology and the critique of
power / ed. by Richard Werbner. - London [etc.] : Zed Books: (1998),
p. 209-228. Pp. 209-228.
Abstract: Mission education in postcolonial Zambia catches students as would-be elites in competing discourses of modernity, conversion and alternative Christian identity, none of which ever gains dominance. The contradictions are subversive in that the orthodox discourse - the much-rehearsed official doctrines about what should be happening at school - is constantly undermined by counterdiscourses or alternative practice, largely inaccessible and only occasionally visible to the school authorities. The author's account of the activities of Seventh Day Adventists and Born Again Pentecostalists at a Zambian boarding school modelled on the British public school and run by Spanish Catholic missionary Brothers dedicated to the Virgin Mary shows how Christian narratives are seized upon deliberately for recreation of self and subjectivity in an attempt to remember, to transcend a personal and a collective past. In response to the present dilemmas of elite formation and the contradictions of their schooling, there are many students who seek, through the practices of Protestant fundamentalism, to refashion their memories of the past, their orientation to the future, their self-accounts and, indeed, their very subjectivity. Bibliogr., notes, ref
Smet, A. J. 1977: La Jamaa dans l'oeuvre du Père
Placide Tempels. Cahiers des religions africaines vol. 11, no. 21/22,
no. spéc., p. 249-269.
Abstract: La Jamaa est devenue un mouvement religieux important au Zaïre et même en dehors de ses frontières; on la considère comme un mouvement charismatique. Pour le Père Placide Tempels (décédé le 9 octobre 1977) la Jamaa n'était pas un mouvement et encore moins un mouvement charismatique. La Jamaa a connu un développement qui n'était pas prévu, peut-être même pas souhaité, par lui. En se limitant principalement aux oeuvres du Père Tempels, on veut clarifier un peu ce problème: Origine de la Jamaa -Evolution de la pensée de Tempels (les écrits ethnographiques publiés; les recueils indits de littérature orale; leçons pour les catéchumènes; la philosophie bantoue; les écrits polémiques et politiques; les premiers écrits pastoraux) - La Jamaa du Père Tempels (le début de la Jamaa; la Rencontre ou Jamaa). Notes, rés. anglais, ann.: Les écrits du Père Placide Tempels (les premiers écrits ethnographiques; les écrits polémiques et politiques; philosophie bantu; les premiers écrits pastoraux; les écrits de la Rencontre et de la Jamaa; les oeuvres inédites)
Smith, Daniel J. 2001: 'The arrow of God': pentecostalism,
inequality, and the supernatural in south-eastern Nigeria. Africa :
journal of the International African Institute vol. 71, no. 4, p.
Abstract: In September 1996 the city of Owerri in southeastern Nigeria erupted in riots over popular suspicion that the town's 'nouveaux riches' were responsible for a spate of ritual murders allegedly committed in the pursuit of 'fast wealth'. In addition to destroying the properties of the purported perpetrators, the rioters burned several pentecostal churches. This article examines the place of religion in the Owerri crisis, particularly the central position of pentecostal Christianity in popular interpretations of the riots. While pentecostalism itself fuelled local interpretations that 'fast wealth' and inequality were the product of satanic rituals, popular rumours simultaneously accused some pentecostal churches of participating in the very occult practices that created instant prosperity and tremendous inequality. The analysis looks at the problematic relationship of pentecostalism to structures of inequality rooted in patron-clientism and focuses on the ways in which disparities in wealth and power in Nigeria are interpreted and negotiated through idioms of the supernatural. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum. in English and French
Smits, Ineke 1988: "Me da onyame ase..." : vier
spiritual churches in Winneba.[S.l.: s.n.].
Abstract: Verslag van een doctoraal onderzoek, verricht in 1987, naar de 'spiritual churches' in de stad Winneba in de Central Region van Ghana. Vier kerken worden beschreven: Nazarene Healing Church, Musama Disco Christo Church, Church of the Lord (Ghana), en Christ Apostolic Church. Een inleidende typering van elke kerk wordt gevolgd door een overzicht van de geschiedenis, omvang en organisatie ervan. Twee vragen staan centraal: Waarin onderscheiden de vier kerken zich van elkaar? Waar ligt voor leden de aantrekkingskracht van de ene boven de andere kerk?
Verslag doctoraal leeronderzoek culturele antropologie R.U. Utrecht
Met bibliogr., bijl
Sommers, Marc 2000: Urbanization, pentecostalism, and urban
refugee youth in Africa.Boston: African Studies Center, Boston
Notes: This paper was presented at the Walter Rodney African Studies Seminar at Boston University on November 27, 2000
Spijker, Gerard v. '. 2001: Credal hymns as 'summa
theologiae': new credal hymns in Rwanda after the 1994 war and
genocide. Exchange : bulletin de littérature des églises
du Tiers Monde vol. 30, no. 3, p. 256-275 : tab.
Abstract: The events of the civil war of 1990-1994 which finally resulted in a genocide in which between 500,000 and 800,000 people were killed, cast a dark shadow over the people living in Rwanda. This paper examines the question of how in these days the Christian faith is expressed in the new hymns which are sung during Sunday church services in the Protestant churches of present-day Rwanda. It focuses on the way the memories and the traumas of the recent past are reflected in these songs and bear an impact on the experience of the Christian faith. Research was carried out in 1996 and 2000 in parishes belonging to five different Protestant denominations: Presbyterians, Baptists, Methodists, Episcopalians and Pentecostals. The author concludes that the hymns sung by these laymen choirs reveal a particular way of listening to the Gospel, and therefore express a popular theology. In this theology human suffering and the victory over it are the main themes. Moreover, the credal hymns of the Rwandese laymen choirs should not simply be characterized as songs of consolation, but as songs of consolation and empowerment. Notes, ref
Surgy, Albert d. 1996: La multiplicité des Églises
au sud de l'Afrique occidentale. Afrique contemporaine : documents
d'Afrique noire et de Madagascar no. 177, p. 30-44.
Abstract: La prolifération des Églises chrétiennes au sud de l'Afrique occidentale (Nigéria, Ghana, Togo, Côte d'Ivoire, Bénin) est un phénomène qui remonte au début de ce siècle. Cependant, il revêt aujourd'hui une ampleur exceptionnelle. L'exemple du Bénin donne une idée de l'accélération du phénomène. La multiplication des Églises est une manière d'assimiler le christianisme sans se dépouiller de façons de penser et d'attitudes religieuses ancestrales. On adhère à l'une ou l'autre d'entre elles pour les mêmes raisons qu'à un groupe de culte vodou, mais avec la volonté d'entrer à part entière dans le monde moderne. Bien qu'elles se gardent de participer directement au débat politique, les Églises chrétiennes jouent un rôle croissant dans la vie de la cité. Elles suppléent aux carences de l'État dans les domaines de la santé, de l'éducation, de la culture, de l'aide aux nécessiteux, de la prévention de la délinquance, et rassemblent des individus déracinés au sein de nouveaux groupes. Bibliogr., notes, réf., rés. en français et en anglais (p. 120)
Surgy, Albert d. 2001: Le phénomène
pentecôtiste en Afrique noire : le cas béninois.Paris
Notes: Bibliogr.: p. -462. - Met noten
Surgy, Albert d. 2001: L'Église du Christianisme
Céleste : un exemple d'église prophétique au
Notes: Bibliogr.: p. -324. - Met bijl., noten
Tade, A. O. 1990: Celestial Church of Christ
inside-out.Akure: Ade-Tade Publishing.
Abstract: Celestial Church of Christ (CCC) was founded by S.B.J. Oschoffa on September 29, 1947, following a divine order, in Porto-Novo, Benin. It was introduced to Nigeria first at Makoko village by some Beninese fishermen. From the church at Makoko branches sprang up all over Nigeria (and later abroad in Europe), constituting the Nigerian diocese, which was officially registered on November 24, 1958. In this booklet, destined for a general public, the author, a longtime member of the Church and Superior Senior Leader, highlights various aspects of the CCC, such as ordination and shepherdhood, prophecy and the duties of prophets, the conduct of anointment, the choir and its functions, the celebration of various festivals, the Church's administration and finance, the death and burial of Papa, the founder, in 1985, and the revelation of his successor
Tall, Emmanuelle K. 1995: Dynamique des cultes voduns et du
Christianisme céleste au Sud-Bénin. Cahiers des
sciences humaines vol. 31, no. 4, p. 797-823.
Abstract: À travers l'étude de trois formes religieuses exemplaires de la production religieuse sur l'ancienne côte des Esclaves, l'auteur tente de rendre compte de la dynamique sociale qui accompagne l'émergence des religions et cultes nouveaux au Sud-Bénin. Le panthéon vodun, dont l'institutionnalisation est à rattacher à la conquête aboméenne, les nouveaux cultes anti-sorcellerie Atinga et Glo vodun, apparaissant dans les années trente et quarante au Togo, au Nigéria et au Bénin, et l'Église du Christianisme céleste inspirée du mouvement Aladura et fondée en 1947 ont accompagné, chacun en leur temps, une série de bouleversements sociaux conduisant les populations locales à trouver de nouvelles formes de sociabilité, notamment religieuses, pour composer avec l'éclatement des structures sociales traditionnelles. En opérant un travail de recomposition soiale - à travers un modèle explicatif unique du malheur et de la maladie (sorcellerie) qui traduit les attentes face aux nouveaux enjeux de la vie moderne -, ces nouvelles formes religieuses permettent à leurs adeptes de retrouver une identité fragilisée par les processus de transformation de la société. Bibliogr., notes, réf., rés. en français (p. 1031) et en anglais ( p. 1035)
Tonda, Joseph and Marc É. Gruénais 2000: Les
"médecines africaines" et le syndrome du prophète
: l'exemple du Congo. Afrique contemporaine : documents d'Afrique
noire et de Madagascar no. 195, p. 273-282.
Abstract: La médecine africaine qualifiée de 'traditionnelle' est en réalité constituée par une diversité de savoirs et de pratiques dont l'unité et la 'traditionnalité' sont bien difficiles à saisir. La notion de 'médecines africaines' peut désigner toutes les médecines pratiquées par les Africains, y compris certaines pratiques de médecins et d'infirmiers exer,cant dans des structures de soins officielles. De plus en plus, surtout en Afrique centrale où le christianisme s'est enraciné et a pu donner lieu à des 'réappropriations' particulières des messages bibliques, ces médecines africaines, tous référents confondus, sont habitées par la religiosité, et les praticiens tentés par le 'syndrome du prophète'. L'article présente quelques 'médecins africains' du Congo jouant sur plusieurs registres et mus par ce syndrome du prophète. Une des fonctions explicites des mouvements religieux africains qui mélangent éléments chrétiens et éléments des univers religieux traditionnels, est de guérir de tous les maux dont souffrent les Africains. Les mouvements pentecôtistes et charismatiques remportent actuellement un vif succès auprès des populations, en particulier des élites urbaines. Ils constituent par excellence des recours de la 'modernité', et prier et se faire 'soigner' dans telle ou telle église devient vite un des éléments constitutifs du statut 'd'intellectuel'. Cette 'culture' de la guérison divine a essaimé aujourd'hui dans tous les milieux, y compris les milieux hospitaliers. Notes, réf
Tonda, Joseph 2002: La guérison divine en Afrique
centrale (Congo, Gabon).Paris: Karthala.
Notes: Met noten
Toulabor, Comi M. 1994: Ghana: nouvelles Églises et
processus de démocratisation. L'Afrique politique p.
Abstract: Prônant une soumission paulinienne à l'autorité, les nombreuses Églises nouvelles (millénaristes, pentecôtistes, etc.) qui essaiment au Ghana, nées de façon indépendante ou par scissiparité des Églises historiques, ne produisent pas de contre-discours et sont portés à faire allégeance au pouvoir en place. La collaboration des nouvelles Églises avec le pouvoir Rawlings peut être sériée en deux catégories: d'abord, ils partagent le même Verbe. Lors de son premier coup d'État en juin 1979, le capitaine d'aviation (devenu entre-temps lieutenant) Rawlings prônait une 'révolution morale' et émaillait ses discours de références à Marcus Garvey, à Frantz Fanon, et surtout à la Bible. Ensuite, les nouvelles Églises participent effectivement au pouvoir par divers canaux. Leur rôle dans le récent processus démocratique est pratiquement inexistant. Elles sont créées pour répondre à des logiques autres que proprement politiques. Notes, réf., rés. en anglais et en français (p. 7)
Trudell, Barbara 2002: Africa's young majority.Edinburgh:
Centre of African Studies, University of Edinburgh.
Abstract: The papers in this volume derive from the conference 'Africa's young majority', which was organized in 2001 by the Centre of African Studies, University of Edinburgh. Contents: Introduction: vulnerability and opportunity among Africa's youth (Barbara Trudell) - Marginalisation re-created? : youth in South Africa in 1990-2000 and beyond (David Everatt) - Precarious futures: the new demography of AIDS in Africa (Carolyn Baylies) - The impact of clitoridectomy on female youths of Africa (Grace N. Wamue) - Who put the 'Y' in the BYDA? : youth in Sudan's civil wars (Justin Willis) - The child soldier phenomena: individual, community and societal impacts of armed conflict in northern Uganda (Susan Grant) - Left holding the gun: the marginalisation of the former comrades and exiles in the new South Africa (1993-2000) (Thokozani Xaba) - The religious mobilization of young Congolese militiamen: victims of politics (Rémy Bazenguissa-Ganga) - A youth religion? : Born-Again Christianity in Zimbabwe and beyond (David Maxwell) - Tomorrow's leaders as leaders for today: youth empowerment and African new religious movements (Afe Adogame) - Woe to thee, o City, when thy king is a (street) child! : essay for a typology of the dynamics of the street children's universe (Yves Marguerat) - Streets versus elites: tensions, trade-offs and treaties in the case of street children in Accra, Ghana (Patrick Shanahan) - Leisure and youth culture in South Africa: football clubs in early Soweto, 1930s-1950s (Peter Alegi) - The role of music and media in Kano youth culture (Safiyya Aliya Abdullah) - Yizo Yizo: reading the swagger in Soweto youth culture (Bhekizizwe Peterson). [ASC Leiden abstract]
Notes: Met bibliogr., noten
Ukah, Asonzeh F. K. 2003: Advertising God: Nigerian
Christian video-films and the power of consumer culture. Journal of
religion in Africa vol. 33, no. 2, p. 203-231.
Abstract: Pentecostalism in Nigeria is increasingly altering the way that those who are attracted in large numbers by its practices and resources perceive their relationship with local culture and material goods. One of the practices of Pentecostalism that has captured popular imagination is the production of Christian video-films. This paper discusses how these popular narratives negotiate both the local world view and the cultural marketplace. It argues that the rhetoric of Pentecostalism as portrayed in locally produced videos is implicated in changing consumer tastes and behaviour. Although this type of Pentecostalism speaks the language of traditional world views in terms of the emphasis on occultism, it is harnessed to a project of Westernized commodity consumption. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum. [Journal abstract]
Waal, Alex d. and Nicolas Argenti 2002: Young Africa :
realising the rights of children and youth.Trenton, NJ: Africa World
Abstract: The papers in this volume were earlier presented at the Pan African Forum on the Future of Children in Africa, held in Cairo in May 2001. The purpose of the Forum was to formulate and adopt the 'African Common Position' on the rights of the child in Africa in preparation for the upcoming UN General Assembly Special Session on Children. Contributions: Realising child rights in Africa: children, young people and leadership (Alex de Waal) - Child survival and development in Africa in the 21st century (Anne Bakilana and Alex de Waal) - Africa's children and Africa's development: a duration of development framework (Ali Abdel Gadir Ali) - Providing education for young Africans (Jessica Bridges-Palmer) - Child victims of war in Africa (Alexandra Galperin) - Youth in Africa: a major resource for change (Nicolas Argenti) - Reflections on youth and militarism in contemporary Africa (Okwir Rabwoni) - HIV/AIDS and young Africans (Alex de Waal) - Pentecostal Christianity and young Africans (Charlotte Spinks) - Implementing the Convention on the Rights of the Child in Africa (Kombe Temba and Alex de Waal). [ASC Leiden abstract]
Notes: Bibliogr.: p. 237-273. - Met index
Wan-Tatah, Victor1998: Pseudo-conversion and African
Independent Churches. In New trends and developments in
African religions / ed. by Peter B. Clarke. - Westport, CT [etc.] :
Greenwood Press: (1998), p. 285-295. Pp. 285-295.
Abstract: This chapter examines the role of African Independent Churches in southern Africa, focussing on the issue of conversion. It explores the differences between the Zionist and Ethiopian churches, arguing that the Zionist Nazarene Church of Isaiah Shembe seems to have rejected total conversion to Western religion. Standing halfway between traditional religion and Christianity, the Nazarenes refuse to completely identify with the former, or to fully embrace the latter. The main reason is that Western missions have used religious ideologies for the racial and economic domination of Africans. The author believes that drastic changes, including greater involvement in social issues, will be needed if African Independent Churches are to have a significant impact on the development process in southern Africa. Bibliogr., ref
Werbner, Richard P. 1998: Memory and the postcolony :
African anthropology and the critique of power.London [etc.]: Zed
Abstract: This book grew from the panel on 'Memory and the postcolony: African anthropology and the critique of power', convened at the meetings of the American Anthropological Association, San Francisco, on 21 November 1996. An introduction by Richard Werbner is followed by eight contributions: Beyond the grave: history, memory and death in postcolonial Congo/Zaïre (Filip De Boeck) - Death, memory and the politics of legitimation: Nuer experiences of the continuing second Sudanese civil war (Sharon Elaine Hutchinson) - Smoke from the barrel of a gun: postwars of the dead, memory and reinscription in Zimbabwe (Richard Werbner) - The uses of defeat: memory and political morality in East Madagascar (Jennifer Cole) - Systematic judicial and extra-judicial injustice: preparations for future accountability (Sally Falk Moore) - Pentecostalism, cultural memory and the State: contested representations of time in postcolonial Malawi (Rijk van Dijk) - 'Make a complete break with the past': memory and postcolonial modernity in Ghanaian Pentecostal discourse (Birgit Meyer) - Memory and becoming chosen other: fundamentalist elite-making in a Zambian Catholic mission school (Anthony Simpson)
Notes: Met bibliogr., index, noten
Williams, C. S. 1983: Power-in-the-making : the healing
approach of the Zulu Zionists.Los Angeles, Cal.: African studies
Abstract: The current healing ideas and practices of Zulu Zionism, one of the largest independent religious movements existing in South Africa today, are examined. Zionism, which derives its name from Zion City, Illinois, and bears no connection to Israeli Zionism, is discussed as a revitalisation movement which has generated various forms of spiritual, psychological, and social power through its rituals and statuses. Power is also symbolised and expressed in the manipulation of colours and through processes of self-discipline and self-deprivation. Such manipulation and processes are analysed from a socio-cultural, as well as from a medical perspective, and the pros and cons for viewing Zulu Zionism as a social reformist movement are weighed
Notes: Paper presented at the 26th annyal meeting of the ASA.
Witte, Marleen d. 2003: Altar media's 'Living Word':
televised charismatic Christianity in Ghana. Journal of religion in
Africa vol. 33, no. 2, p. 172-202.
Abstract: In many parts of Africa, charismatic Pentecostal churches are increasingly and effectively making use of mass media and entering the public sphere. This article, which is based on fieldwork carried out in Accra in 2001 and 2002/2003, presents a case study of a popular charismatic church in Ghana and its media ministry. Building on the notion of charisma as intrinsically linking religion and media, the aim is to examine the dynamics between the supposedly fluid nature of charisma and the creation of religious subjects through a fixed format. The process of making, broadcasting and watching 'Living Word' shows how the televisualization of religious practice creates charisma, informs ways of perception, and produces new kinds of religious subjectivity and spiritual experience. Through the mass mediation of religion a new religious format emerges which, although originating from the charismatic Pentecostal churches, spreads far beyond and is widely appropriated as a style of worship and of being religious. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum. [Journal abstract]
Yoka, Lye M. 2000: Les sectes à Kinshasa: culte de
la personnalité et volonté de puissance. Congo-Afrique
: économie, culture, vie sociale année 40, no. 343, p.
Abstract: Il y a désormais à Kinshasa (République démocratique du Congo, RDC) autant de sectes qu'il y a de 'visions' charismatiques, autant de 'visions' que de prophètes. À la racine de cette pathologie hystérique rampe la misère matérielle et morale avec, à chaque coup, comme solutions la quête des 'paradis artificiels' et le recours à la magie des oracles. L'on sait comment désormais les campagnes évangéliques, véritable thermomètre de la population des sectes et des rivalités entre elles, sont des occasions de démonstration de puissance. Puissance de charisme pastoral et puissance du 'verbe' fait miracle. Les sectes sont bien devenues des 'affaires'. Lorsqu'on voit en effet avec quel luxe les 'pasteurs' se pavanent et s'exhibent, on finit par douter du caractère 'sans but lucratif' de leurs associations. Notes, réf
Zwart, Madelon 1995:: Indigenous churches in the
Kavango.Utrecht: University of Utrecht.
Notes: An anthropological field-research Department of Cultural Anthropology, University of Utrecht, 1996
Bibliogr.: p. 152-157. - Met bijl., noten